# PHYS Courses

# PHYS 1 – Pre-University Physics

This course covers the topics in Ontario Secondary Schools essential for first year university physics. Topics include: motion in one and two dimensions using vectors as appropriate, Newton's laws of motion applied using free body diagrams, energy, geometric optics, simple waves in one and two dimensions, electrical and magnetic effects. Successful completion of this course fulfils the University admission requirements where high school Physics is necessary. No University Credit. Offered by Distance Education only.

# PHYS 10 – Physics Seminar

This seminar brings together Physics students in all years to hear invited speakers, view physics-related films, and learn about current research. [Offered: F,W]

# PHYS 111 – Physics 1

An introduction to physics for students intending to concentrate their further studies in biology, dentistry, medicine and paramedicine; includes particle kinematics and dynamics, energy and momentum conservation, and rotational mechanics.

# PHYS 111L – Physics 1 Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 111.

# PHYS 112 – Physics 2

A continuation of PHYS 111; includes simple harmonic motion, electrostatic force and potential, electric current and power, DC circuits, magnetic field and induction, wave motion, sound and optics.

# PHYS 112L – Physics 2 Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 112.

# PHYS 115 – Mechanics

Brief review of kinematics. Particle dynamics, work, energy, conservation of energy. Conservation of linear momentum, collisions, rotational kinematics and dynamics, conservation of angular momentum. Equilibrium of rigid bodies. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 121 – Mechanics

An introductory course in physics for students intending to concentrate their future studies in the physical sciences, optometry or mathematics; includes particle kinematics and dynamics, forces in nature, work and energy, conservation of energy and linear momentum, rotational kinematics and dynamics, and conservation of angular momentum.

# PHYS 121L – Mechanics Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 121. Students intending to follow a Physics or Mathematical Physics plan must take PHYS 131L.

# PHYS 122 – Waves, Electricity and Magnetism

Simple harmonic motion, resonance, damped harmonic motion, wave motion and sound, electrostatic force and potential, electric current and power, capacitors, DC circuits, LRC circuits, introduction to magnetic fields Lorentz Force.

# PHYS 122L – Waves, Electricity and Magnetism Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 122. Students intending to follow a Physics or Mathematical Physics plan must take PHYS 132L.

# PHYS 124 – Modern Physics

An introductory course in modern physics; includes relativity, quantum physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, particle physics and gravitation. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 125 – Physics for Engineers

Oscillations; simple harmonic motion. Wave motion, travelling and standing waves; transverse and longitudinal waves, including sound. Geometrical optics; reflection and refraction. Physical optics; interference and diffraction. Quantum physics; quantization of radiation; hydrogen atom. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 131L – Mechanics Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 121 and who intend to follow a Physics or Mathematical Physics plan; all other students who have taken or are taking PHYS 121 should select PHYS 121L.

# PHYS 132L – Waves, Electricity, Magnetism and Measurement Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 122 and who intend to follow a Physics or Mathematical Physics plan; all other students who have taken or are taking PHYS 122 should select PHYS 122L.

# PHYS 139 – Scientific Computer Programming

Introduction to scientific computer programming techniques as applied to problem solving in physics, with examples from first year mechanics. Simple sequential programs, control structures, functions, data types, data storage and scientific graphing. Introduction to object oriented programming. Numerical differentiation, integration, root determination and solution of linear equation systems. [Offered: W. The last offering of this course will be winter 2011.]

# PHYS 175 – Introduction to the Universe

A survey course in astrophysics intended for Physics and Astronomy students. Astrophysical processes, the sky, the Sun, stars, black holes, the Milky Way and other galaxies, Big Bang cosmology.

# PHYS 175L – Introduction to the Universe Laboratory

For students who are taking PHYS 175. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 191 – Electricity and Magnetism

Supplemental course material in Electricity and Magnetism for preparation of upper year courses in this discipline. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 222 – Electricity and Magnetism 1

Coulomb's law, electric field, Gauss' law, potential, capacitance, properties of dielectrics, current, resistance, electromotive force, D.C. circuits and instruments. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 223 – Electricity and Magnetism 2

Magnetic fields, induced electromotive forces, magnetic properties of matter, alternating currents, electromagnetic waves. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 224 – Electricity and Magnetism for Life and Medical Physics

Coulomb's law, electric field, Gauss' law, potential, current, resistance, electromotive force, D.C. circuits, magnetic fields, induced electromotive forces; applications include cell membrane potentials, action potentials, role of charge in structure and function of DNA, basis for the magneto-encephalogram and biomedical instrumentations. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 224L – Electricity and Magnetism Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 224; only for Honours Life Physics students taking the Medical Physics Specialization.

# PHYS 225 – Modeling Life Physics

Introduction to modeling living systems and their components. Statistical methods in data analysis, curve fitting, including p values. Fourier series and transforms, structural analysis, including nearest neighbor distributions in biomedical applications. Introduction to methods for analysis of transport properties in biological systems. Use of computers in these areas. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 226 – Geometrical Optics

Fermat's principle, reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces, thin and thick lenses, optical instruments such as magnifiers, microscopes, telescopes, spectrometers, normal magnification. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 232L – Measurement Laboratory

A laboratory that teaches programming (e.g.LabVIEW) for the computer interfacing of physics experiments and automatic data collection.

# PHYS 233 – Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

Introduction to quantization, wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle The Schroedinger equation and solvable examples. Topics will include stationary states of particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom. Quantization of angular momentum and spin. Introduction to approximation methods including time-independent perturbation theory. Modern applications of quantum mechanics. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 234 – Quantum Physics 1

Background of quantum physics. Introduction to formalism of quantum physics. Introduction to operators. Quantization, waves and particles. The uncertainty principle. The Schroedinger equation for one-dimensional problems: bound states in square wells. Harmonic oscillator; transmission through barriers.

# PHYS 236 – Computational Physics 1

Introduction to scientific computer programming techniques as applied to problem solving in physics, with examples from first year mechanics. Procedural programs, control structures, functions, and data storage. Numerical differentiation, integration, and solution of linear equation systems. Data analysis and visualization. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 239 – Computational Physics 2

Object-oriented programming applied to physical problems in astrophysics, electromagnetism, classical and quantum mechanics. Solution methods for differential equations and Monte Carlo techniques. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 241 – Electricity and Magnetism

Coulomb's law, electric fields, Gauss' law, electric potential. Capacitance, current, resistance, circuits. Magnetic fields, Ampere's Law, induced electromotive forces, magnetic properties of materials. [Offered: F. The last offering of this course will be fall 2011.]

# PHYS 242 – Electricity and Magnetism 1

Coulomb's law, electric fields, Gauss' law, potential, capacitance, properties of dielectrics, DC circuits, AC circuits. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 242L – Electricity and Magnetism Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 242.

# PHYS 246 – Physical Optics

Nature of light, wave motion, superposition of waves, interference of light, Fraunhofer diffraction and resolution limit of optical instruments; the diffraction grating and the analysis of light. Fresnel diffraction. Polarized light. Coherence of light, lasers, holography. Fibre Optics. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 256 – Geometrical and Physical Optics

Electromagnetic waves and the nature of light. Geometrical optics, aberrations. Physical Optics: interference, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, polarization. Optical instruments. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 256L – Optics Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 256.

# PHYS 258 – Thermal Physics

Temperature and thermodynamic equilibrium. Work, internal energy and heat; first law, with examples. Kinetic theory of gases. Basic probability theory. Microscopic states and entropy. Absolute temperature, reversibility and the second law. Thermodynamic Functions and Maxwell's relations. Phase transitions. Third Law. Other applications of thermodynamics. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 260A – Intermediate Physics Laboratory 1

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 241.

# PHYS 260B – Intermediate Physics Laboratory 2

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 256.

# PHYS 260C – Intermediate Physics Laboratory 3

Experiments in selected physics topics.

# PHYS 260L – Intermediate Physics Laboratory

Experiments in selected physics topics.

# PHYS 263 – Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity

Newtonian dynamics of particles and systems of particles. Oscillations. Gravity and the central force problem. Lorentz transformations and relativistic dynamics. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 270 – Astronomical Observations, Instrumentation and Data Analysis

Telescopes, instrumentation and observations at different wavelengths (radio, sub-millimetre, infrared, optical, X-ray). Probability and statistics. Data archives and data analysis. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 270L – Astronomical Observations, Instrumentation and Data Analysis Laboratory

For students who are taking PHYS 270. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 275 – Planets

Terrestrial and gas giant planets in the Solar System, asteroids and comets. Extrasolar planets and astrobiology. Star and planet formation. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 276 – Introduction to Gravitational Physics

The basic physical and geometrical ideas underlying Einstein's model of space, time and gravity -- special and general relativity -- with a minimum of mathematical detail. Main topics: (1) Gravitational physics: overview of current research and applications, (2) Special relativity: the geometry of flat spacetime and accelerated observers, and (3) General relativity: geodesics, geometrical formulation of Newtonian gravity, Schwarzschild spacetime and the classical tests of general relativity, and introduction to Einstein's equation. [Offered W]

# PHYS 280 – Introduction to Biophysics

Introduction to a physical understanding of biological systems at macro and molecular scales. The course is intended for 2nd year science and engineering students and will cover a broad spectrum of topics in biophysics, as well as an introduction to neurobiology, nanotechnology and biotechnology. [Offered: W,S]

# PHYS 334 – Quantum Physics 2

Formalism of quantum mechanics. Operator approach to the harmonic oscillator. Quantum mechanics in three dimensions: Hydrogen atom, angular momentum and spin. Time-independent perturbation theory. Fine structure of hydrogen. Zeeman effect. Identical particles. The variational principle. Ground state of the helium atom. Applications in atomic and molecular physics. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 335 – Condensed Matter Physics

Overview of condensed matter ordered and disordered systems. Thermodynamic origin of order and phase transitions. Waves. Properties of the solid state. Crystals and fractals. Overview of Fourier Series. Reciprocal lattice. Diffraction. Classical elastic theory of the crystalline state. Electrons in a periodic potential, Band structure and Fermi surface. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 339 – Scientific Computation 2

Introduction to selected topics in numerical treatment of problems in condensed matter physics, astrophysics, optics, and/or biophysics. Examples of covered computational methods are: Monte Carlo method, Molecular Dynamics, optimization, and solution to partial differential equations. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 342 – Electricity and Magnetism 2

Magnetic fields, Ampere's law, induced electromotive forces, magnetic devices, magnetic properties of materials, inductance, introduction to Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves.

# PHYS 352 – Analogue Electronics

p and n materials, pn diodes, junction and FET transistors. Transistor amplifiers and their equivalent circuits. Operational amplifiers. Oscillators and power supplies. Computer simulation of devices and circuits. [Offered: W even years,S odd years]

# PHYS 352L – Analogue Electronics Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 352.

# PHYS 353 – Digital Electronics

Logic gates, flip-flops and shift registers. Binary numbers and Boolean algebra. An introduction to microprocessors. This will include arithmetic logic units, parallel input/output ports, assembly language and a number of examples. [Offered: S even years, F odd years]

# PHYS 353L – Digital Electronics Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 353,

# PHYS 356 – Introduction to Communication and Optical Communication Physics

An introduction to optical fibre, waveguides, and passive optical devices. An overview of semiconductors, light emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers and detectors. Modulation schemes, noise sources and signal detection techniques in communications and optical communications. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 356L – Introduction to Communication and Optical communication Physics Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 356.

# PHYS 358 – Thermal Physics

Temperature and thermodynamic equilibrium. Work, internal energy and heat; first law, with examples. Kinetic theory of gases. Basic probability theory. Microscopic states and entropy. Absolute temperature, reversibility and the second law. Thermodynamic Functions and Maxwell's relations. Phase transitions. Third Law. Other applications of thermodynamics. [Formerly PHYS 258. Offered: F, S]

# PHYS 359 – Statistical Mechanics

Fundamental postulate of statistical thermodynamics. Entropy. Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles. Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein and Boltzmann Statistics. Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. Applications to specific heat of solids, classical and quantum gases, electrons in metals, Planck's law of radiation, and Bose-Einstein condensation. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 360A – Modern Physics Laboratory 1

Selected experiments in mechanics, optics, electronics, atomic, molecular, nuclear and solid state physics.

# PHYS 360B – Modern Physics Laboratory 2

Continuation of 360A.

# PHYS 363 – Intermediate Classical Mechanics

Non-inertial frames of reference. Calculus of variations. Lagrangian mechanics. Coupled oscillations and normal modes. Hamiltonian dynamics.

# PHYS 364 – Mathematical Physics 1

Sturm-Liouville theory. Legendre, Bessel and other special functions. Fourier series and introduction to Fourier transforms. Separation of variables. Green's function. [Offered: F,S]

# PHYS 365 – Mathematical Physics 2

Introduction to probability and statistics. Complex variables, Cauchy-Riemann conditions, Cauchy integral formula, Taylor and Laurent expansions, residue theorem, contour integrals and applications. Fourier and Laplace transforms with applications. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 370L – Astronomy Laboratory 1

Selected experiments in astronomy. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 375 – Stars

Stellar distances, masses, ages. Stellar interiors and atmospheres, star formation and evolution. Supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 380 – Molecular and Cellular Biophysics

Cell structure and molecular composition; intermolecular interactions and hydration; protein structure and function; cytoskeletal filaments; DNA structure, packing and chromosomes; rate equations and biological dynamics (e.g., cytoskeletal polymerization); self-assembly; cell membranes; action potentials and biological electricity; molecular motors; cell motility. [Recommended PHYS 280/BIOL 280. Offered: F, S]

# PHYS 381 – Cellular Biophysics

Structure and function of cellular membranes, membrane lipid and protein structure and dynamics, membrane potential and ion transport, nerve conduction, vision and interaction of light with membranes, muscle contraction and energy transduction.

# PHYS 383 – Medical Physics

Applications of physics in medicine. The course will address basic concepts of medical imaging, nuclear medicine and radiation isotopes, radiation therapy and biomedical laser applications. Nuclear structure and binding energy. Nuclear decays, radioactivity and nuclear reactions. Interaction of radiation with matter. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 391 – Electronics

p and n materials, pn diodes, junction and FET transistors. Transistor amplifiers and their equivalent circuits. Operational amplifiers. Oscillators and power supplies. Noise. [Formerly PHYS 352. Offered: W even years]

# PHYS 391L – Electronics Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 391.

# PHYS 392 – Scientific Measurement and Control

Logic gates, flip-flops and shift registers, analogue to digital and digital to analogue conversion, feedback control systems, noise and spectral analysis, RF electronics. [Formerly PHYS 353. Offered: W odd years]

# PHYS 392L – Scientific Measurement and Control Laboratory

For students who have taken or are taking PHYS 392.

# PHYS 393 – Physical Optics

Fourier Optics: diffraction, dispersion, coherence, imaging. Polarization: birefringence, Jones vectors, Mueller Matrices. Fresnel Equations: optics at an interface, thin films. [Offered: W even years]

# PHYS 394 – Light-Matter Interactions

Lasers: semi-classical interaction, properties, cavity, Gaussian beams. Radiation and Detectors. Introduction to nonlinear optics. [Offered: W odd years]

# PHYS 395 – Biophysics of Therapeutic Methods

The effect of radiation of various kinds on cells and tissues; elements of radiobiology and photobiology; molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death, repair of radiation damage, dose-response relationships; tumor radiobiology and therapies, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy, combination therapies; radiosensitizers and photosensitizers for cancer therapies; transdisciplinary advances in physical methods (ultrafast laser and ultrasound techniques) for biomedical applications.

# PHYS 396 – Biophysics of Imaging

Introduction to imaging concepts in biophysics with emphasis on the interrelationship between the physics principles of an imaging modality and the associated image reconstruction; methods for imaging at macroscopic to microscopic scales; computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, PET, optical imaging, optical and fluorescence microscopy, scanning probe microscopy (AFM, STM), optical tweezers, electron microscopy.

# PHYS 432 – Physics of Solid State Devices

The theories of solid state physics are applied to explain the operation and use of several electronic devices, including the p-n junction, transistors, tunnel diodes, field effect devices, opto-electronic devices, etc. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 434 – Quantum Physics 3

Symmetries and conservation laws. Review of time-independent perturbation theory (degenerate and non-degenerate. Rayleigh-Schrodinger, Brillouin-Wigner and canonical perturbation theory; effective Hamiltonian derivation). Time-dependent perturbation theory (1st and 2nd order, adiabatic perturbation, Aharonov-Bohm effect). Fermi's golden rule. Two-level systems. Emission and absorption of radiation (applications). Second quantization of electromagnetic field in free space; photons. Spontaneous emission and natural lifetime; Lamb shift. Elements of scattering theory. Introduction to the Dirac equation. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 435 – Current Topics in Condensed Matter Physics

Physics pertaining to collective and emergent phenomena in condensed matter systems. Examples of topics to be covered include: magnetism, superconductivity, heavy Fermion systems, quantum hall effect, protein folding, membranes, DNA physics, polymer physics, Modern experimental and theoretical techniques. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 437A – Research Project

A research project in any area of Physics approved by the course co-ordinator(s). The student is required to present a summary of the project orally and to submit a written report in a style suitable for publication. Some projects, especially those with an experimental emphasis, will likely continue as 437B. In these cases, students will submit an interim written report, in addition to the oral presentation. [Offered: F,W]

# PHYS 437B – Research Project (continued)

A continuation of the project undertaken in PHYS 437A. The student is required to present a summary of the project orally or by poster and to submit a written report in a style suitable for publication. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 441A – Electromagnetic Theory

Electrostatics, magnetostatics, and the macroscopic description of dielectrics and magnetic materials. Includes appropriate mathematical techniques, potential theory and the method of images. [Offered: F. The last offering of this course will be fall 2014.]

# PHYS 441B – Electromagnetic Theory

Maxwell's Equations. Electromagnetic fields and the Lorentz Transformation. Plane waves in insulators, conductors and plasmas. Reflection and refraction at plane boundaries. Guided waves. Dipole radiation. [Offered: W. The last offering of this course will be winter 2015.]

# PHYS 442 – Electricity and Magnetism 3

Review of the origin of Maxwell's equations, conservation laws, potential formulation of Maxwell's equations and gauge choices, vacuum solutions of Maxwell's equations (free space, waveguides, dispersion), solution to Maxwell's equations for arbitrary sources (static and time-dependent problems), relativistic formulation of electrodynamics, macroscopic Maxwell's equations and plane waves in macroscopic media. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 444 – Introduction to Particle Physics

This course introduces students to the standard model of particle physics. Topics covered include symmetries, particle classification, experimental methods and tools, scattering, Feynman diagrams, gauge theories, quantum electrodynamics, quarks, quantum chromodynamics, weak interactions, and the Higgs mechanism. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 445 – Modern Optics

Basic electromagnetic wave theory. Polarization, reflection, refraction, and dispersion. Temporal coherence and spectra. Spatial coherence and diffraction. Spatial filtering. Lasers, modes and beam propagation. Special topics may include crystal optics and nonlinear effects, holography, fibre optics and communications. [Offered: W. The last offering of this course will be winter 2013.]

# PHYS 454 – Quantum Theory 2

The Hilbert space of states, observables and time evolution. Feynman path integral and Greens functions. Approximation methods. Coordinate transformations, angular momentum and spin. The relation between symmetries and conservation laws. Density matrix, Ehrenfest theorem and decoherence. Multiparticle quantum mechanics. Bell inequality and basics of quantum computing. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 460A – Advanced Laboratory 1

Selected advanced experiments in mechanics, optics, electronics, atomic, molecular, nuclear and solid state physics.

# PHYS 460B – Advanced Laboratory 2

A continuation of PHYS 460A.

# PHYS 461 – Nanophysics

Fundamentals of nanotechnology. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine. Nanotechnology and society. Physical foundations of nanodevices. Conduction at the nanoscale. Modern nanodevices. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 467 – Introduction to Quantum Information Processing

Basics of computational complexity; basics of quantum information; quantum phenomena; quantum circuits and universality; relationship between quantum and classical complexity classes; simple quantum algorithms; quantum Fourier transform; Shor factoring algorithm; Grover search algorithm; physical realization of quantum computation; error-correction and fault-tolerance; quantum key distribution. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 468 – Introduction to the Implementation of Quantum Information Processing

Photonic quantum computing, Superconducting qubits, NMR, Ion Trap quantum computing, Atomic quantum computing. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 474 – Galaxies

Galaxy structure, formation and evolution. Dynamics and stellar populations; gas and dust; supermassive black holes; large-scale structure. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 475 – Cosmology

Robertson-Walker metric and Friedmann equations. Observational cosmology. Dark matter and dark energy. Gravitational lensing. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background. Inflation. Structure formation.

# PHYS 476 – Introduction to General Relativity

Tensor analysis. Curved space-time and the Einstein field equations. The Schwarzschild solution and applications. The Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 480 – Radiation Biophysics

The effect of radiation of various kinds on cells and tissues; mechanisms of damage, repair theories, genetic effects, dose-response relationships; cancer radiotherapy (x-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons, negative Pi mesons); other types of cancer therapies used in conjunction with radiotherapy (e.g. hyperthermia); late effects of radiation; carcinogenesis; risk vs. benefit; applications.

# PHYS 482 – Physics of Medical Imaging

Introduction to imaging concepts in medicine. Nuclear medicine, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and optical imaging. Physics principles and applications with emphasis on the former. [Offered: W]

# PHYS 483 – Advanced Therapeutic Concepts in Oncology and Medical Physics

This course examines advanced oncology therapeutic concepts required as a foundation for patient management in the inpatient, ambulatory, and community settings. Topics include a comprehensive review of cancer epidemiology and pathophysiology, therapeutic agents used in the oncology setting, management of cancer therapy toxicities, and treatment and palliation of cancer symptoms. Physics methods in radiation therapy and the medical physicist's role in cancer treatment will be addressed. [Offered: W] [Held with PHARM 464]

# PHYS 490 – Special topics in Physics

A lecture course offered in a particular branch of physics, subject to availability of instructor.

# PHYS 491 – Special Topics in Life, Medical and Biophysics

A lecture and project course offered in areas of life, medical and biophysics, which will add to the learning experience of the students in these plans at a fourth year level. Lecture topics may include advanced topics in: molecular and cellular biophysics, imaging, biophotonics, interaction of radiation with biomaterials, radiation dosimetry and other physics based diagnostics and therapeutics. Projects may include studies of recent advances in any areas of medical and biophysics. [Offered: F]

# PHYS 601 – Perimeter Scholars International Quantum Field Theory 1

Canonical quantization of fields, perturbation theory, derivation of Feynman diagrams, applications in particle and condensed matter theory, renormalization in phi^4.

# PHYS 602 – Perimeter Scholars International Statistical Physics

A brief review of ensembles and quantum gases, Ising model, Landau theory of phase transitions, order parameters, topology, classical solutions.

# PHYS 603 – Perimeter Scholars International Quantum Field Theory 2

Feynman Path Integral, abelian and nonabelian guage theories and their quantization, spontaneous symmetry breaking, nonperturbative techniques: latticef ield theory, Wilsonian renormalization.

# PHYS 604 – Perimeter Scholars International Relativity

Special relativity, foundations of general relativity, Riemannian geometry, Einstein's equations, FRW and Schwarzschild geometries and their properties

# PHYS 605 – Perimeter Scholars International Quantum Theory

Schrodinger equation: free particle, harmonic oscillator, simple time-dependent problems. Heisenbrerg picture and connection with classical physics. Entaglement and non-locality. Pure and mixed states, quantum correlators, measurement theory and interpretation.

# PHYS 606 – Perimeter Scholars International Information and Data Analysis

Probability, entropy, Bayesian inference and information theory. Maximum likelihood methods, common probability distributions, applications to real data including Monte-Carlo methods.

# PHYS 607 – Perimeter Scholars International Dynamical Systems

Maps, flows, stability, fixed points, attractors, chaos, bifurcations, ergodicity, approach to chaos. Hamiltonian systems, Liouville measure, Poincare theorem, integrable systems with examples.

# PHYS 608 – Perimeter Scholars International Computation

Common algorithms for ode and pde solving, with numerical analysis. Common tasks in linear algebra. Focus on how to write a good code, test it, and obtain a reliable result. Parallel programming.

# PHYS 609 – Perimeter Scholars International Conformal Field Theory

This course is an introduction to the key ideas and techniques of conformal field theories. These theories play a central role In the study of phase transitions in statistical physics and condensed matter systems, as well as in string theory. Conformal field theories provide a theoretical laboratory in which the constraints imposed by symmetries allow for the exact solution of field theories, which have found important applications in both physics and mathematics.

# PHYS 610 – Perimeter Scholars International Mathematics Physics

This course will include the study of Perturbation Theory (Regular and Singular) Speeding Up Convergence: Shanks Transformations and Richardson Extrapolation Taylor Series, Fourier Series and the Gibbs Phenomenon Using Diveregent Series: Generalised Summation Analytic Continuation, Riemann Surfaces and Branch Points Continued Functions and Pade Approximants Steiltjes Functions, the Herglotz Property and the Carleman Bound Feynman Diagrams.

# PHYS 611 – PSI Condensed Matter Physics

Theories of Condensed Matter Physics emphasizing the consequences of broken symmetries and the resulting collective modes which emerge, including broken translational symmetry and phonons, broken spin rotational symmetry and magnons, electronic properties of normal metals, and broken U(1) gauge symmetry in superconductors, excitations above the gap and collective modes in superconductors.

# PHYS 621 – Perimeter Scholars International Cosmology

FRW metric, Hubble expansion, dark energy, dark matter, CMB. Thermodynamic history of early universe. Growth of perturbations, CDM model of structure formation and comparison to observations, cosmic microwave background anisotropies, inflation and observational tests.

# PHYS 622 – Perimeter Scholars International Standard Model

Application of Yang-Mills theory to particle physics, QCD and its tests in the perturbative regime, theory of weak interactions, precision tests of electroweak theory, CKM matrix and flavour physics, open questions.

# PHYS 623 – Perimeter Scholars International String Theory

Superstring spectrum in 10d Minkowski, as well as simple toroidal and orbifold compactifications. T-duality, D-branes, tree amplitudes. Construct some simple unified models of particle physics. Motivate the 10- and 11-dimensional supergravities. Simple supergravity solutions and use these to explore some aspects of AdS/CFT duality.

# PHYS 624 – Perimeter Scholars International Mathematical Physics Topics

Differential forms, de Rham cohomology, differential topology and characteristic classes, monopoles and instantons, Kahler manifolds, Dirac equation, zero modes and index theorems.

# PHYS 625 – Perimeter Scholars International Supersymmetry

The following topics will be discussed: The Lorentz Group: Properties and Representations; Manipulating Spinors; Supersymmetry Algebra and Representations; Superfields and Superspace; 4d Supersymmetric Lagrangians; Supersymmetry Breaking; Constructing the MSSM; Collider Phenomenology of Supersymmetric Theories; and Dark Matter.

# PHYS 635 – Perimeter Scholars International Quantum Information Review

Review of selected topics in Quantum Information

# PHYS 636 – Perimeter Scholars International Gravitational Physics Review

Review of selected topics in Gravitational Physics

# PHYS 637 – Perimeter Scholars International Condensed Matter Theory

Review of selected topics in Condensed Matter Theory

# PHYS 638 – Perimeter Scholars International Quantum Gravity

Review of selected topics in Quantum Gravity

# PHYS 639 – Perimeter Scholars International Foundations of Quantum Theory

Review of selected topics in Foundations of Quantum Theory

# PHYS 641 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Quantum Information

Review of selected topics in Quantum Information

# PHYS 642 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Numerical Gravitational Physics

Review of selected topics in Gravitational Physics

# PHYS 643 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Condensed Matter Theory

Review of selected topics in Condensed Matter Theory

# PHYS 644 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Quantum Gravity

Review of selected topics in quantum Gravity

# PHYS 645 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Foundations of Quantum Theory

Review of Selected topics in Foundations of Quantum Theory

# PHYS 646 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Particle Physics

Review of selected topics in Particle Physics

# PHYS 647 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in String Theory

Review of selected topics in String Theory

# PHYS 648 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Complex Systems

Review of selected topics in Complex Systems

# PHYS 649 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Cosmology

Review of Selected topics in Cosmology

# PHYS 650 – Perimeter Scholars International Explorations in Quantum Gravity

This course will introduce the students to the basic techniques and results of the field of loop quantum gravity. Possible topics include: 1) The Ashtekar variables and the Hamiltonian formalism; 2) The Plebanski action for general relativity; 3) The Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity and basic operators such as the area and volume operators; 4) Spin foam models; 5) Group field theory; 6) Quantum black hole horizons.

# PHYS 701 – Quantum Mechanics 1

Review of formalism of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics including symmetries and invariance. Approximation methods and scattering theory. Elementary quantum theory of radiation. Introduction to one-particle relativistic wave equations.

# PHYS 702 – Quantum Mechanics 2

Concepts of relativistic quantum mechanics, elementary quantum field theory, and Feynman diagrams. Application to many particle systems. Students who have not taken PHYS 701 but have an equivalent background in Quantum Mechanics may seek the instructor's consent to register in this course.

# PHYS 703 – Introduction to Quantum Field Theory

Review of relativistic quantum mechanics and classical field theory. Quantization of free quantum fields (the particle interpretation of field quanta). Canonical quantization of interacting fields (Feynman rules). Application of the formalism of interactin quantum fields to lowest-order quantum electrodynamic processes. Radiative corrections and renormalization.

# PHYS 704 – Statistical Physics 1

Statistical basis of thermodynamics; microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles; quantum statistical mechanics, theory of the density matrix; fluctuations, noise, irreversible thermodynamics; transport theory; application to gases, liquids, solids.

# PHYS 705 – Statistical Physics 2

Phase transitions. Fluctuation phenomena. Kubo's theory of time correlation functions for transport and spectral properties; applications selected from a variety of topics including linearized hydrodynamics of normal and superfluids, molecular liquids, liquid crystals, surface phenomena, theory of the dielectric constant, etc. Students who have not taken PHYS 704 but have an equivalent background in Statistical Physics may seek the instructor's consent to register in this course.

# PHYS 706 – Electromagnetic Theory

Solutions to Maxwell's equations; radiation theory; normal modes; multipole expansion; Kirchhoff's diffraction theory; radiating point charge; optical theorem. Special relativity; transformation laws for the electromagnetic field; line broadening; dispersion; Kramers-Kronig relations. Magnetohydrodynamics and plasmas.

# PHYS 708 – Applications of Group Theory

Introduction to group theory; symmetry, the group concept, representation theory, character theory. Applications to molecular vibrations, the solid state, quantum mechanics and crystal field theory.

# PHYS 709 – Green's Function Method

Review of essential quantum field theory. Zero and finite temperature Green's functions. Applications.

# PHYS 710 – Atomic Physics

Emphasis on atomic structure and spectroscopy. Review of angular momentum, rotations, Wigner-Eckart theorem, n-j symbols. Energy levels in complex atoms, Hartree-Fock theory, radiative transitions and inner shell processes. Further topics selected with class interest in mind, at least one of which to be taken from current literature.

# PHYS 711 – Scattering Theory

Review of potential theory of scattering. Applications chosen from elastic and inelastic neutron, X-ray, light, charged-particle, and atomic and molecular beam scattering.

# PHYS 712 – Special Topics in Theoretical Physics

# PHYS 713 – Molecular Physics

Angular momentum and the rotation of molecules; introduction to group theory with application to molecular vibrations; principles of molecular spectroscopy; spectra of isolated molecules; intermolecular interactions and their effects on molecular spectra; selected additional topics (e.g., electronic structure of molecules, experimental spectroscopic techniques, neutron scattering, correlation functions, collision induced absorption, extension of group theory to molecular crystals, normal coordinate analysis, etc.).

# PHYS 714 – Nonlinear Optics

Laser and nonlinear optics; techniques for controlling laser beams such as mode selection and mode locking; laser spectroscopy.

# PHYS 715 – Nuclear Physics

Static properties of nuclei; alpha, beta, gamma-decay; two-body systems; nuclear forces; nuclear reactions; single-particle models for spherical and deformed nuclei; shell, collective, interacting boson models.

# PHYS 716 – Special Topics in Subatomic and Nuclear Physcis

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 717 – Intermediate and High Energy Physics

Strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Isospin, strangeness, conservation laws and symmetry principles. Leptons, hadrons, quarks and their classification, formation, interactions and decay.

# PHYS 718 – Special Topics in Subatomic and Nuclear Physics

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 730 – Liquid State Physics

Physical properties of atomic liquids; distribution functions and equilibrium properties, elementary perturbation theories and integral equation theories; simple metals, simple computer simulation; viral expansions and thermodynamic derivatives of g(r); experimental determination of g(r).

# PHYS 731 – Solid State Physics 1

Phonons, electron states, electron-electron interaction, electron-ion interaction, static properties of solids.

# PHYS 732 – Solid State Physics 2

Transport properties; optical properties; magnetism; superconductivity; disordered systems.

# PHYS 733 – Special Topics in Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics

# PHYS 735 – Photoconductivity and Luminescence

Electron processes in crystals, photoconductive processes. Electrode effects, imperfection and energy band transitions, scattering traps and trapping effects. Recombination kinetics, luminescence. Experimental methods and analysis.

# PHYS 736 – Optical Properties of Semiconductors

Reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves at dielectric and conducting interfaces. Dispersion, absorption processes, photo effects, magneto-optical effects, emission of radiation.

# PHYS 737 – Special Topics in Surface Physics

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 738 – Special Topics in Condensed Matter and Materials Physics

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topics and instructor.

# PHYS 741 – Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Introduction to electron optics and the electron microscope; kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction by perfect crystals and by crystals containing lattice imperfections, limited area electron diffraction, dark-field microscopy, interpretation of electron diffraction patterns and diffraction contrast effects in electron microscope images, selected experimental methods in electron microscopy.

# PHYS 742 – Basic Theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Quantum mechanics of spins in magnetic field; Bloch equations; NMR apparatus; the various nuclear spin interactions; spin temperature; density matrix; spin-lattice relaxation; double resonance.

# PHYS 745 – Special Topics in Experimental Physics

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 747 – Optical Electronics

Optoelectronic component fabrication, light propagation in linear and nonlinear media, optical fiber properties, electro-optic and acousto-optic modulation, spontaneous and stimulated emission, semiconductor lasers and detectors, noise effects in fiber systems.

# PHYS 748 – Microprocessors in the Physics Laboratory

Interfacing and programming of microprocessors for applications in physics, including signal averaging, auto- and cross-correlation analysis, multichannel spectrum analysis, and Fourier transformation. Consideration of hardware versus software methods for optimization of speed and system size.

# PHYS 749 – Special Topics in Experimental Physics

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 751 – Clinical Applications of Physics in Medicine

This course provides an overview of the application of physics to medicine. The physical concepts underlying the diagnosis and treatment of disease will be explored. Topics will include general imaging principles such as resolution, intensity and contrast; x-ray imaging and computed tomography; radioisotopes and nuclear medicine, SPECT and PET; magnetic resonance imaging; ultrasound imaging and radiation therapy.

# PHYS 752 – Molecular Biophysics

Physical methods of determining macromolecular structure: energetics, intramolecular and intermolecular forces, with applications to lamellar structures, information storage, DNA and RNA, recognition and rejection of foreign molecules.

# PHYS 753 – Radiation Biophysics

Physical properties and biological effects of different kinds of radiation: action of radiation on various cellular constituents: target theory, genetic effects, repair of radiation damage, physics of radiology and radiotherapy, isotopic tracers.

# PHYS 754 – Special Topics in Biophysics

# PHYS 755 – Biophysics of Organ Systems

Specialized cells and organs; the nerve impulse and its propagation, muscle contraction, sensory transducers, the central nervous system; haemodynamics, the red blood corpuscle, homeostasis; selected topics of current interest, and seminar.

# PHYS 757 – Special Topics in Biophysics

# PHYS 767 – Quantum Information Processing

Review of basics of quantum information and computational complexity; Simple quantum algorithms; Quantum Fourier transform and Shor factoring algorithm: Amplitude amplification, Grover search algorithm and its optimality; Completely positive trace-preserving maps and Kraus representation; Non-locality and communication complexity; Physical realizations of quantum computation: requirements and examples; Quantum error-correction, including CSS codes, and elements of fault-tolerant computation; Quantum cryptography; Security proofs of quantum key distribution protocols; Quantum proof systems. Familiarity with theoretical computer science or quantum mechanics will also be an asset, though most students will not be familiar with both.

# PHYS 768 – Special Topics in Quantum Information Processing

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 769 – Special Topics in quantum Information Processing

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 771 – Special Lecture and Reading Course

# PHYS 772 – Selected Seminar & Module Course

(for inter-departmental students)

# PHYS 773 – Special Topics in Physics

# PHYS 775 – Inter-Institution Exchange

At the Director's discretion, a PhD or MSc student may receive course credit for a term of specialized studies at another institution. Formal evaluation is required.

# PHYS 776 – Special Topics in Physics

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 777 – Special Topics in Physics

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 780 – Galactic Structure

Introduction to statistical theory and distribution laws. Statistical theory of the galactic system. Stellar motions in the solar vicinity. Galactic rotation. Space distribution of stars and their relation to the galaxy. Distribution of various galactic objects. Application to extra-galactic systems.

# PHYS 781 – Fundamentals of Astrophysics

Multi-wavelength astronomy: radio, infrared, optical and x-ray observations. Radiative Processes: macroscopic description, thermal and non-thermal emission, scattering, line transitions and plasma effects. Gravitational Dynamics: potential and orbits, self-gravitating systems, the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation, gravitational encounters. Fluid Mechanics: simple fluids, soundwaves and shocks, instabilities and transport mechanisms.

# PHYS 784 – Advanced techniques in General Relativity and Applications to Black Holes

Review of elementary general relativity. Timelike and null geodesic congruences. Hypersurfaces and junction conditions. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of general relativity. Mass and angular momentum of a gravitating body. The laws of black-hole mechanics.

# PHYS 785 – Introduction to Quantum Field Theory for Cosmology

Introduction to scalar field theory and its canonical quantization in flat and curved spacetimes. The flat space effects of Casimir and Unruh. Quantum fluctuations of scalar fields and of the metric on curved space-times and application to inflationary cosmology. Hawking radiation.

# PHYS 786 – Introduction to General Relativity with Applications to Cosmology

Introduction to the differential geometry of Lorentzian manifolds. The priniciples of general relativity. Causal structure and cosmological singularities. Cosmological space-times with Killing vector fields. Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies, scalar, vector and tensor perburbations in the linear and nonlinear regimes. De Sitter space-times and inflationary models.

# PHYS 787 – Cosmology

Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and dynamics; big bang thermodynamics; nucleosynthesis; recombination; perturbation theory and structure formation; anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background; statistics of cosmological density and velocity fields; galaxy formation; inflation.

# PHYS 788 – Special Topics in Astrophysics

# PHYS 789 – Special Topics in Astrophysics

# PHYS 790 – Special Topics in Gravitation and Cosmology

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topic and instructor.

# PHYS 791 – Special Topics in Gravitation and Cosmology

Offered on demand. Course content depends on topics and instructor.

# PHYS 890 – Inter-university Graduate Course in Biophysics

This graduate course is offered using the combined biophysical resources of the Universities of Brock, Guelph, McMaster and Waterloo. Three topics constitute the equivalent of a one-term 3 hrs./week graduate course. Information about the course and the selection of individual topics can be obtained from the department course co-ordinator. Registration and credit will occur in the term of the last module.