Zachary Seguin

PHIL Courses

PHIL 100 – Introduction to Philosophy

An introduction to central issues in metaphysics and epistemology. Questions to be considered might include: "Can we know anything?" "Does God exist?" "Is the mind just a brain?" "Do human beings have free will?"

PHIL 100J – Introduction to Philosophy

This course seeks to introduce students to the nature of philosophy. This is done through the examination of core texts and figures in the history of philosophy as well as in the discussion of perennial philosophical questions.

PHIL 101 – Challenging Ideas: An Introduction to Philosophy

Students will examine and challenge some influential ideas in Philosophy, and consider their importance to our lives. Questions might include: Does science describe the world as it really is? Is the mind just the brain? What can we know? Should we be moral? Do we have free will?

PHIL 105 – Introduction to Ethics and Values

An introduction to central issues in ethics and value theory. Questions considered might include: "What makes actions right or wrong?" "Are there facts about what is beautiful?" "Can our social institutions be justified?"

PHIL 110A – Introduction to Philosophy: Knowledge and Reality

An introduction to central issues in metaphysics and epistemology. Questions to be considered might include: "Can we know anything?", "Does God exist?", "Is the mind just a brain?", "Do human beings have free will?"

PHIL 110B – Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics and Values

This course is an introduction to philosophical thinking about ethics and value, that is, about what is good, right, fair, just, and worthwhile in life. Includes consideration of questions such as "What is the right thing to do?" and "Do human beings have free will?"

PHIL 118J – Virtue and the Good Life

An examination of the importance of virtue in general and of the cardinal virtues in particular (practical wisdom, justice, courage, and moderation) for the development of moral character and the enjoyment of the good life.

PHIL 120J – The Meaning of Life

We may have distinct ideas about the reason why we do this or that, but is there a point to our existence as a whole? What do or should we live for? Or is life essentially meaningless or even absurd? What do such questions mean and how can we best answer them? The views of different philosophers will be explored and compared.

PHIL 121 – Moral Issues

This course surveys several controversial moral topics, and a range of philosophical views on each. Topics may include abortion, cloning, euthanasia and suicide, sexism, prostitution, pornography, torture, and animal rights.

PHIL 145 – Critical Thinking

An analysis of basic types of reasoning, structure of arguments, critical assessment of information, common fallacies, problems of clarity and meaning.

PHIL 200A – Great Works of Western Philosophy: Part 1

Outstanding works from the ancient and medieval periods.

PHIL 200B – Great Works of Western Philosophy: Part 2

Outstanding works on metaphysics and epistemology from the early modern period (1600-1800).

PHIL 200J – Aristotelian Logic

An introduction to the understanding of how words are used, the formation of propositions, the construction of arguments and the examination of fallacies to help the student argue with order, facility and without error.

PHIL 201 – Philosophy of Sex and Love

Classic and contemporary philosophical examination of sex and love. Questions considered might include the following: Do you love because your love-object is worthy, or do you find your love-object worthy because of your love for them? Does sex ever involve using persons as mere means to an end? Should it?

PHIL 202 – Gender Issues

Philosophical analysis of issues relating to sex/gender. Questions considered might include the following: What, if anything, is the difference between sex and gender? How much of a role do facts about biology play in our ideas about sex and gender? How many sexes are there? What ethical issues arise for us in virtue of our gender?

PHIL 204J – Philosophy and Culture

An exploration of the nature of culture and its role in the life and development of the human being through an analysis of the assumptions of Western popular culture in such areas as technology and the internet, individual freedom, sexuality, and the global economy.

PHIL 205 – Philosophy of Economics

This course considers conceptual, methodological, foundational, and ethical issues in economic theory and practice. Questions include: What can philosophy teach us about economic methodology and justification? Are economic formalizations useful idealizations of human behaviour? Is economics a science? What role do values play in economic reasoning and policy-making?

PHIL 206 – Philosophy of Sport

This course uses the tools of philosophy to ask important questions about sport, such as: What is sport? What is the value of sport for participants or fans? Are violent sports unethical? Should performance enhancing drugs be banned? What is luck, and how is it different from skill?

PHIL 207J – Philosophy and J.R.R. Tolkien

An introduction to the implicit philosophical content of Tolkien's works, with a special emphasis on Lord of the Rings. Problems such as the existence of God, fate, free will, evil, death, and technology will be explored. Tolkien's views will be examined in relation to philosophical works.

PHIL 208 – Philosophy Through Science Fiction

Questions regarding such matters as the nature of knowledge, logic and language, mind and brain, space and time, causality, ethics, and politics are explored through classic philosophic texts and science fiction narratives.

PHIL 209 – Philosophy in Literature

Philosophical themes will be explored through appropriate literary works.

PHIL 210J – Human Nature

What is a human being? The course examines this question from a philosophical perspective. Topics to be covered may include the soul, the body, emotions, the intellect, the will, relationships, sex, and human dignity.

PHIL 211J – Death and the After-Life

What is death? What does it mean for a person to die? Is death an evil thing and what attitude should the living person have toward death? Is there any rational or philosophical reason to believe in immortality? Questions such as these will be explored using the views of a certain number of philosophers.

PHIL 215 – Professional and Business Ethics

Study of ethical and moral issues that typically arise in professional and business activity. What responsibilities to society at large do people in such business and professional activities as teaching, engineering, planning, architecture, and accounting have? How far should professional autonomy extend?

PHIL 216 – Probability and Decision Making

This course covers a set of related topics in probability, inductive reasoning, game theory and decision theory which are of both theoretical and practical interest, having application to the philosophy of science, epistemology, political philosophy, ethics, political science, and economics. The course begins with probability theory, introduces utility theory, and discusses approaches to the theory of decision making with attention to their epistemological, social, and ethical implications.

PHIL 218J – Foundations of Ethics

What is ethics and what is it based on? What does it mean for an action, a person, or a life to be morally good? Can philosophy provide any objective and universal answers to moral questions? The views of different philosophers will be discussed.

PHIL 219J – Practical Ethics

An examination of contemporary ethical issues pertinent to our Western societies, such as abortion, euthanasia, the treatment of animals, the environment, and free expression.

PHIL 220 – Moral Issues

This course surveys several controversial moral topics, and a range of philosophical views on each. Topics may include abortion, cloning, euthanasia and suicide, sexism, prostitution, pornography, torture, and animal rights.

PHIL 220J – Philosophy of Friendship

Friendship is an essential part of a happy life. Ancient western philosophers made friendship one of the cornerstones of their ethics. This course is an exploration of their views on problems such as the necessity of friendship, its nature, its species, and its relationship to happiness and the political community.

PHIL 221 – Ethics

An introduction to moral theories, including ones based on virtue, consequences, and rights and duties, with discussion of historical developments leading to those theories.

PHIL 224 – Environmental Ethics

Philosophical perspectives on such issues as climate change, pollution, use of scarce resources, biodiversity, and our relations with animals and future generations. This course will also consider bioactivism and other approaches to environmental problems.

PHIL 226 – Biomedical Ethics

An examination of ethical issues in the health sciences, such as the patient-doctor relationship, reproductive rights and technologies, genetic testing, allocation of medical resources, and end of life decisions.

PHIL 227 – Culture and Ethics

This course surveys a variety of competing ethical positions that have been, and continue to be, adopted by different cultures around the world. Can two competing ethical viewpoints both be right? If not, then what grounds should we adopt to decide between them, and under what circumstances? How can we negotiate the difficulties that such differences pose for our practical judgment and moral theorizing? Students will engage these questions by reading texts in philosophical ethics and meta-ethics, and by applying what they have learned in case studies of ethical differences among cultures.

PHIL 230J – God and Philosophy

What is God? Does God exist? Can philosophy prove God or is agnosticism or atheism more reasonable? Is God compatible with evil and suffering or with a modern scientific worldview? Such questions will be explored from a variety of perspectives.

PHIL 236 – Religious and Paranormal Experience

A critical examination of reports of extraordinary experiences such as telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, mysticism, prophecy, and miracle-working will lead to philosophical discussion of rationality, causation, free will, survival of death, and other topics.

PHIL 237 – Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion

A critical discussion of basic religious concepts. Among the topics covered will be faith, miracles, religious experience, immortality, arguments for the existence of God, and challenges to religious belief.

PHIL 238 – Modern Philosophical Challenges to Religious Belief

A survey of significant philosophical problems posed by religious belief. These include: the basis for religious belief in contemporary theories of knowledge, the relationship between science and religion, the idea of special revelation, the problem of freedom and determinism, the relation between religion and ethics, and the role of religion in a pluralistic society.

PHIL 240 – Introduction to Formal Logic

An examination of classical propositional logic, covering proof methods, expressive completeness, soundness, and completeness. Also introduction to quantificational logic.

PHIL 243 – Creative Thinking, Problem Solving and Decision Making

Problem solving, including Assessment of Risk, Uncertainty and Value form one part of the course. Other subjects include Individual and Group Process for Finding and Weighing Alternatives; Organization of Data, its Presentation and Analysis.

PHIL 245 – Critical Thinking About Science

How does science work? Does anything fall outside the scope of scientific inquiry? Under what circumstances do scientific claims deserve our trust? Does corporate funding of research affect its credibility? What can scientific failures teach us about scientific success? By looking at case studies of recognized scientific successes and failures, this course addresses these questions in a way that emphasizes core philosophical concepts in epistemology, philosophy of science, and ethics.

PHIL 250A – Great Works: Ancient and Medieval

A historical survey of ancient and medieval philosophy in the Western tradition with an emphasis on metaphysics and epistemology.

PHIL 250B – Great Works: Modern

A historical survey of modern philosophy in the Western tradition with an emphasis on metaphysics and epistemology.

PHIL 251 – Metaphysics and Epistemology

This course introduces philosophical theories about the nature of reality (metaphysics), how we gain knowledge of it (epistemology), and of why such questions matter. Topics may include skepticism, the nature of rationality, knowledge of other minds, realism and anti-realism, and free will and determinism.

PHIL 252 – Quantum Mechanics for Everyone

Quantum mechanics is driving a technological revolution. This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts of quantum mechanics from a historical and philosophical perspective. The course will supply the background needed to understand the controversies surrounding the interpretation of quantum mechanics as well as the principles behind the cutting-edge research being carried out at the Perimeter Institute and the University of Waterloo.

PHIL 255 – Philosophy of Mind

This course will discuss fundamental questions concerning the nature of mind, including the relation between mind and body, the plausibility of commonsense views of the mind, and knowledge of other minds.

PHIL 256 – Introduction to Cognitive Science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence. This course will draw on philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology to address central questions about the nature of thinking. Topics discussed will include mental representation, computational models of mind, and consciousness.

PHIL 257 – Philosophy of Mathematics

An introduction to philosophical problems concerning mathematics. Topics may include: what makes mathematical statements true (e.g. do numbers exist?); whether mathematics is a human creation of something we discover; what counts as a proof; mathematical paradoxes; the relationship between mathematics and other sciences; and mathematical pluralism.

PHIL 258 – Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

This course considers fundamental questions concerning the nature of science. Consideration is given to such topics as scientific methodology, scientific revolutions, natural laws, and the debate about whether scientific theories represent reality, or just our perceptions of reality.

PHIL 259 – Philosophy of Technology

What is technology? What is its relationship with modern science? Is technology a means or an end? Does the development of technology require a change in the way we conceive human nature and its place within the natural world? What new moral and metaphysical dilemmas does technology raise?

PHIL 265 – The Existentialist Experience

An introduction to existentialism using both literary and philosophical texts.

PHIL 271 – Special Topics

Special topics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 283 – Great Works: Ancient and Medieval

A historical survey of ancient and medieval philosophy in the Western tradition.

PHIL 284 – Great Works: Modern

A historical survey of modern philosophy in the Western tradition.

PHIL 285J – Great Christian Thinkers

An introduction to and examination of the thought of one important figure of Christian philosophy, such as Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, or Kierkegaard. The choice of the philosopher studied varies from term to term.

PHIL 286J – Great German Thinkers

An introduction to and examination of the thought of one important figure (such as Leibniz, Kant, Nietzsche, or Heidegger) or school (such as Idealism, Romanticism, or phenomenology) of German philosophy. The choice of the philosopher(s) studied varies from term to term.

PHIL 290 – Nature of Scientific Knowledge

This course examines how knowledge is produced in scientific disciplines, including the nature of inquiry, as well as types of evidence and expertise across different fields. The course features significant input from scientific practitioners in the form of guest lectures.

PHIL 291 – The Social Nature of Knowledge

This course examines social aspects of knowledge, including ways that characteristics of individual knowers and their communities affect the acquisition, interpretation, production, and transfer of knowledge. In addition, we analyze the consequences this has for the objectivity of knowledge. The course features significant input from researchers in the humanities and social sciences in the form of guest lectures.

PHIL 302 – Topics in Feminist Philosophy

Special topics in feminist philosophy, as announced by the department. Possible topics include (but are not limited to) bodily autonomy, reproductive justice, intersectionality, feminist epistemology, and the metaphysics of race and/or gender.

PHIL 305J – Philosophy of Nature

A philosophical study of the most fundamental and common aspects of the natural world. After examining how such a study differs from and complements modern science, topics such as nature, matter, change, cause, time, and chance will be explored.

PHIL 306J – Philosophy of Science

A philosophical study of the approaches to the material world used by contemporary physical science. The nature and the value of the experimental method in the writings of scientists past and present will be examined.

PHIL 311 – Philosophy of Education

This course surveys a number of philosophical examinations of education - its nature, purpose, methods and consequences.

PHIL 312 – Philosophy of Education 2

An introduction to current work in the field. Issues to be considered may include: the desirability and content of a core curriculum, methods of moral development, the problem of indoctrination, gender and education, computers and education, and peace education.

PHIL 315 – Ethics and The Engineering Profession

An analysis from the standpoint of philosophical ethics of moral issues arising in professional engineering practice. Issues include the social responsibility of engineers, conflict of interest and obligation, morally acceptable levels of risk, and moral implications of technology.

PHIL 318J – Philosophy and the Family

A philosophical examination of the family: its foundation, its purpose, its importance in personal growth and its relation to political community.

PHIL 319J – Ethics of End-of-Life Care

What options does a person reaching the end of life have and how can they best be cared for? How can we balance patient autonomy with the expertise of the health-care provider and the demands of the health-care system? This course will help students think philosophically and critically about issues like these in their cultural, historical, and legal context. Specific topics may include consent, human dignity, euthanasia, refusal or withdrawal of treatment, palliative care and holistic patient care, pluralism and diverse understandings of dying, and treatment of the elderly.

PHIL 320 – Topics in Value Theory

Special topics in value theory, as announced by the department. Possible topics include (but are not limited to) meta-ethics, moral psychology, moral responsibility, justice and oppression, international justice, and specific topics in applied ethics.

PHIL 322 – Contemporary Ethical Theory

Continues the history and discussion of ethics begun in PHIL 221 with writings from 1900 to the present. Theories such as intuitionism, emotivism, utilitarianism, and relativism are examined via the writings of such people as Moore, Hare and Warnock.

PHIL 324 – Social and Political Philosophy

An examination of central issues in social and political philosophy. This course draws on both contemporary and historical readings to discuss issues such as: Does the state have legitimate authority to govern? What is the just way to distribute resources? What is the value of equality? Of liberty? What rights, if any, do we have, and why?

PHIL 326J – Philosophy of Social Justice

What is justice and more particularly what makes a society just? In the philosophical treatment of this problem, notions such as the purpose of community living, private and common goods, individual freedom, and social responsibility will be explored.

PHIL 327 – Philosophy of Law

Basic themes in the philosophy of law. Issues include the nature of law and its relation to morality and politics, legal reasoning, the justification of punishment, and theories of rights, responsibility and liability.

PHIL 328 – Human Rights

What are human rights? Which do we have, and why? What are the practical implications of human rights, for both individuals and institutions? A comprehensive discussion of theory and history, of law and morality, and of national and international applications.

PHIL 329 – Violence, Non-violence, and War

An exploration of the traditional debates concerning the legitimacy of violence and war as instruments in the pursuit of personal and political goals. The course critically examines a continuum of views from religious doctrines of non-resistance, to various forms of pacifism and non-violent resistance, "just-war theory", and political realism. The strategic arguments for political non-violent action are also considered.

PHIL 331 – Philosophy of Art

What is art? What is beauty? What do the two have to do with each other? This course introduces students to some fundamental issues in the philosophy of art, and to a variety of philosophical views on these issues.

PHIL 340 – Topics in Formal Philosophy

Special topics in formal philosophy, as announced by the department. Potential topics may include (but are not limited to) non-standard logics, intermediate classical logic, game and decision theory, philosophy of mathematics, and formal epistemology.

PHIL 341 – Intermediate Classical Logic

A systematic investigation of classical predicate logic, with an emphasis on proving key results significant in other areas of philosophy. The course will include soundness and completeness, basic model theory including the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem, and key limitative results such as the Tarski's indefinability theorem and Gödel's incompleteness theorems.

PHIL 342 – Non-Standard Logics

An introduction to various non-standard logics at the centre of debates in various areas of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, metaethics, and philosophy of science. Logics covered will include second order logic, classical modal, deontic, temporal, and epistemic logics, and intuitionistic logic. Other systems, such as relevance and linear logics, may also be discussed.

PHIL 350 – Topics in Epistemology

Special topics in epistemology, as announced by the department. Potential topics include (but are not limited to) the epistemology of testimony, the epistemology of disagreement, normative social cognition, and the varieties and functions of ignorance.

PHIL 355 – Topics in Metaphysics

Special topics in metaphysics, as announced by the department. Potential topics include (but are not limited to) universals and particulars, the mind-body problem, realism and anti-realism, and the nature of time.

PHIL 356 – Intelligence in Machines, Humans, and Other Animals

A comparison of the representations and processes that produce intelligent performance, such as problem-solving, learning, and language in natural and artificial systems.

PHIL 358 – Topics in Philosophy of Science

Special topics in the philosophy of science, as announced by the department. Possible topics include (but are not limited to) philosophy of physics, philosophy of biology, the philosophy of social science, topics in the history and philosophy of science, general philosophy of science, and science in society.

PHIL 359 – Philosophy of Mathematics

A study of philosophical problems concerning mathematics. Topics discussed include formalism, intuitionism, logicism, the mathematical paradoxes, and other topics in foundations and metamathematics.

PHIL 362 – Philosophy of the Social Sciences

Problems about the fundamental methods and aims of the social sciences generally, and problems specific to Psychology, Sociology, Political Science, etc., and their relations to one another will be considered.

PHIL 363 – Philosophy of Language

Topics in the philosophy of language such as meaning, truth, reference, speech acts, mental representations of syntax and semantics, psycholinguistics, and relations between logical and natural languages.

PHIL 371 – Special Topics

Special topics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 378 – American Philosophy

A survey of the leading ideas of classical American philosophers with attention to common themes, such as pragmatism.

PHIL 380 – History of Ancient Philosophy

In this course, students will examine one or more important figures, periods, or issues in ancient philosophy. Plato and Aristotle are among the philosophers who may be covered.

PHIL 381 – History of Ancient Philosophy 2

From Aristotle to the close of classical antiquity.

PHIL 382 – Medieval Philosophy

In this course students will examine one or more important figures, periods, or issues in medieval philosophy. Augustine, Boethius, Avicenna, Maimonides, Aquinas, and Scotus are among the philosophers who may be covered.

PHIL 383 – Medieval Philosophy 2

The later period from the 13th century. Among those considered will be: Bonaventure, Aquinas, Scotus, and Ockham.

PHIL 384 – History of Modern Philosophy

In this course, students will learn about one or more important figures, periods, or issues in modern philosophy. Descartes, Locke, Leibniz, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant are among the figures who may be covered.

PHIL 385 – History of Modern Philosophy 2

Later period including Hume and Kant.

PHIL 386 – 19th- and 20th-Century Philosophy

A course on one or more important figures or issues in 19th- or 20th-century philosophy, as announced by the department. The focus of the course may change each time it is offered. Potential figures include (but are not limited to) Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, James, Dewey, Peirce, Frege, Carnap, and Russell.

PHIL 387 – 20th-Century Philosophy

A study of major themes of 20th-century philosophy through representative works of Russell, Moore, Carnap, Wittgenstein, Husserl and others.

PHIL 402 – Studies in Feminist Philosophy/Philosophy of Sex

Special topics in feminist philosophy, women philosophers and/or the philosophy of sex, as announced by the Department of Philosophy.

PHIL 403 – Studies in Ancient Philosophy

Special topics in ancient philosophy, as announced by the department.

PHIL 404 – Studies in Medieval Philosophy

Special topics in medieval philosophy, as announced by the department.

PHIL 405 – Studies in Modern Philosophy

Special topics in 17th and 18th century philosophy, as announced by the department.

PHIL 406 – Studies in Kant

Special topics in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, as announced by the department.

PHIL 407 – Studies in 19th- and 20th-Century Philosophy

Special topics in 19th- and 20th-century philosophy, as announced by the department.

PHIL 408 – Early 20th Century Philosophy

Special topics in early 20th century philosophy, as announced by the department.

PHIL 416 – Studies in Probability and Decision Theory

Special topics in probability and decision theory, as announced by the department.

PHIL 418J – Ethics and Society

This course examines the nature and purpose of community living as well as such traditionally controversial issues as private and public morality, the individual good and the common good, personal freedom and group responsibility.

PHIL 420 – Studies in Ethics

Special topics in ethics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 421 – Studies in Ethics

Special topics in ethics, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 422 – Studies in Political Philosophy

Special topics in Political Philosophy, as announced by the department.

PHIL 423 – Political Philosophy 2

A detailed discussion of contemporary theories.

PHIL 435 – Studies in Philosophy of Religion

A study of a particular philosopher or problem, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 436 – Studies in Philosophy of Religion

A study of a particular philosopher or problem, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 440A – Logical Theory

A rigorous and general development of the propositional and predicate calculus within which alternative calculi are examined. Study of such concepts as completeness, consistency, extensionality, and modality from both formal and philosophical points of view. Intended primarily for those interested in philosophical issues connected with logic.

PHIL 440B – Logical Theory

The second part of PHIL 440.

PHIL 441 – Studies in Logic

Special topics in logic, as announced by the department.

PHIL 442 – Studies in Logic

Special topics in logic, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 447 – Seminar in Cognitive Science

An interdisciplinary discussion of central issues concerned with mind and intelligence, such as representation, meaning, inference and consciousness.

PHIL 450J – Being and Existence

A discussion of metaphysics as the kind of examination initiated by the Greeks (e.g., Parmenides and Aristotle) and renewed subsequently by many other philosophers (e.g., Aquinas and Heidegger), understood as ontology or the rational study of being as such. Notions such as reality, essence, existence, and analogy will be discussed.

PHIL 451J – Thomas Aquinas

An in-depth study of a particular theme in Thomas Aquinas. Specific topic to vary.

PHIL 452 – Studies in Epistemology

Special topics in epistemology, as announced by the department.

PHIL 455 – Studies in Metaphysics

Special topics in metaphysics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 456 – Problems in Metaphysics

Various problems in metaphysics, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 458 – Studies in the Philosophy of Science

Special topics in the philosophy of science, as announced by the department.

PHIL 459 – Studies in the Philosophy of Physics

An investigation of philosophical issues raised by physics. Topics could include the interpretation of quantum theory, the arrow of time, or the nature of space and time. This course is suitable for students with a background in either philosophy, physics, or mathematics.

PHIL 463 – Studies in the Philosophy of Language

Special topics in the philosophy of language, as announced by the department.

PHIL 465 – Existential Philosophy

An in depth study of the thoughts of a major figure such as Kierkegaard, Unamuno, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus, Marcel, Jaspers, Ortega y Gasset.

PHIL 470 – Phenomenology

A critical examination of the issues and methods of phenomenology, including the attempts to understand the uses and ramifications of phenomenological methods through the working out of particular analyses. The basic writings of phenomenologists such as Husserl and Merleau-Ponty will be used.

PHIL 471 – Special Topics

Advanced study of special topics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 472 – Special Topics

Advanced study of special topics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 473 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 474 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 475 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 476 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 477 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 478 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 479 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 480 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 481 – Special Topics

Advance study of special topics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 482 – Special Topics

Advanced study of special topics, as announced by the department.

PHIL 483 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 484 – Special Subjects

One or more term courses will be offered at different times, as announced by the Department.

PHIL 498 – Directed Reading in Special Areas

Readings in selected topics chosen in discussion with instructor.

PHIL 600 – Seminar in Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence. This seminar will discuss controversial topics concerning the nature of human and computer intelligence

PHIL 670 – Fall Term Reading Course

PHIL 671 – Winter Term Reading course

PHIL 672 – Spring Term Reading Course

PHIL 673 – Graduate Courses

Graduate level courses covering specialized topics in philosophy. These courses are often held in conjunction with 400 level philosophy courses, though of course the work requirements for graduate students are more stringent. Students must pay attention to the restriction on the number of these courses they are allowed to count toward their degree.

PHIL 674 – Graduate Courses

Graduate level courses covering specialized topics in the department's fields of research concentration.

PHIL 675 – Graduate Courses in Applied Philosophy

Graduate level courses covering specialized topics in Applied Philosophy.These courses are often held in conjunction with PHIL 673, Graduate Courses in Philosophy; the course requirements in PHIL 675 will involve application of philosophical methods and theories to practical problems. These courses are often held in conjunction with 400 level philosophy courses, through of course the work requirements for graduate students are more stringent. Students must pay attention to the restriction on the number of these courses they are allowed to count toward their degree.

PHIL 676 – Graduate Courses in Applied Philosophy

Graduate level courses covering specialized topics in the department's field of research concentration. These courses are often held in conjunction with PHIL 674, Graduate Course in Philosophy; the course requirements in PHIL 676 will involve application of philosophical methods and theories to practical problems.

PHIL 680A – Departmental Graduate Seminar

A graduate level survey which acquaints students with a number of issues under active investigation in the philosophical literature in a particular area of central importance to philosophy. Normally covers an area that falls within the department's identified fields of research concentration. The area will vary from year to year, but will always be one which is likely to inform students' research whatever their eventual specialization.

PHIL 680B – Departmental Graduate Seminar

A graduate level survey which acquaints students with a number of issues under active investigation in the philosophical literature in a particular area of central importance to philosophy. Normally covers an area that falls within the department's identified fields of research concentration. The area will vary from year to year, but will always be one which is likely to inform students' research whatever their eventual specialization.

PHIL 696 – Directed Research for MA Candidates

A one-term course which involves the writing of a research paper. Non-thesis MA students must complete three such courses, each supervised by a different instructor, as part of the requirements for their degree. Thesis MA students must complete one such course, supervised by the instructor who will supervise the thesis, as a preliminary stage in their thesis preparation.

PHIL 698 – Research Area Tutorials for PhD

PhD candidates select two of these tutorials on topics approved by the department, each to be taken with a different instructor, as part of their degree requirements. The goal of each area is to allow the student to reach a point where she or he is ready to make a research contribution to a particular area of philosophy. One of the areas will normally be in the subject the student intends to pursue for the dissertation.

PHIL 699 – Applied Research Placement Tutorial

Students in the Applied Philosophy program enroll in this tutorial in conjunction with a placement at a host organization. The Applied Research Placement will prepare the student to make a research contribution on a specific philosophical topic and to make an applied contribution outside of philosophy.