Zachary Seguin

OPTOM Courses

OPTOM 103 – Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis of human disease based on a molecular and cellular framework. Fundamental concepts such as homeostasis, cell injury, protective responses (inflammation, fever, immune response) and the healing process. Systemic pathophysiology: abnormal functions of the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, nervous system, urinary system, muscular system, respiratory system and digestive system.

OPTOM 104 – Anatomy of the Eye 1

The gross, microscopic and ultra structure of ocular tissues. The embryology of the eye is included. The relationship of the eye to the vascular supply of the head and the vascular supply of the head and the nervous system will be studied. This course is credited only upon completion of OPTOM 114.

OPTOM 105 – Medical Microbiology

Bacterial physiology and genetics, normal flora, bacteria (including chlamydiae and rickettsiae), fungi, viruses, parasites and related diseases, with emphasis on molecular mechanisms of ocular disease and relevant ocular manifestations in appropriate topics.

OPTOM 106 – Geometrical, Physical and Visual Optics

Nature of light, wave motion and superposition, rectilinear propagation, reflection and refraction, image formation and quality, optical properties of plane and curved surfaces, prisms and thin lenses. Apertures and pupils. Thick lens theory, lens systems, ray construction, Fraunhofer diffraction and resolution limit. Fresnel diffraction. Simple optical eye models. Refractive error and its correction. Interference and coherence of light: applications. Lasers

OPTOM 108 – Histology of Tissues and Organs

The organization of human cells, tissues and organs. Cellular structure and function is presented as a foundation for understanding fundamental pathological constructs (e.g. carcinoma versus sarcoma). Detailed histology of major organ systems that are likely to have ocular manifestations when diseased. This coursework will provide the basis for subsequent courses in the pathobiology of ocular and systemic human disease.

OPTOM 109 – Visual Perception 1: Perception of Light

Sensory processes involved in visual perception. Topics include spectral sensitivity, light and dark adaptation, temporal and spatial resolution, and principles of photometry.

OPTOM 114 – Anatomy of the Eye 2

A continuation of OPTOM 104

OPTOM 124 – Human Gross Anatomy

A selective study of human gross anatomy as a basis for understanding disease. Strong emphasis is placed on head and neck anatomy, including the orbit, but thorough coverage of thorax, abdomen and pelvis is provided as well. Didactic material is illustrated in laboratory experience with prosected human cadavers, plasticized cadaveric material, anatomical models and computer-based learning tools.

OPTOM 126 – Fundamentals of Visual Optics

Refraction and reflection of light by the surfaces of the eye. Optical properties of emmetropic and ametropic eyes as a function of growth and pupil size and their measurement. Properties of the retinal image including size, blur and quality and their relationship to imperfections of the optics. Light scattered in the eye. Relationships between the retinal image and visual perception. The retinal image and accommodation.

OPTOM 134 – Immunology

An introduction to the vertebrate immune response; the cells and tissues of the lymphoid system; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; initiation and regulation of the immune response; the immune system and disease, techniques used in immunology. Unique features of the immunobiology of the eye are included.

OPTOM 143 – Physiology of the Eye

The physiology of the smooth muscles of the eye, the extraocular striate muscles, the lacrimal apparatus, the cornea, the iris, the lens, the ciliary body and the vitreous body. Production and drainage of acqueous and related influences on intraocular pressure. The vascular supply of the eye.

OPTOM 152 – Clinical Techniques 1

Clinical techniques for the primary care examination of the optical properties and ocular health of the ye. Case history taking. Medical emergency responses. Professional boundaries.

OPTOM 152L – Clinical Techniques 1 Laboratory

Selected clinical techniques for students taking 152.

OPTOM 215 – Systemic Disease

Etiology, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diseases affecting the organs and tissues of the human body including: circulatory, hemopoietic/lymphoid, lungs/upper respiratory tract, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, liver/biliary tract, pancreas, urogenital system, endocrine system, musculoskeletal system, skin, nervous system diseases.

OPTOM 216 – Ophthalmic Optics 1

Single vision spectacle lenses. Lens and frame materials. Optical and ophthalmic instrumentation. Image quality. Polarization. Tinted lenses. Decentration and prismatic effect. Obliquely crossed cylinders. Spectacle magnification. Ophthalmic laboratory procedures: measurement of spectacle lens power.

OPTOM 219 – Visual Perception 2: Monocular and Binocular Visual Processes

Physical space and visual space. Fundamental perceptual processes, binocular vision, stereopsis, binocular space perception. Systems of analysing binocular vision. Theory of aniseikonia. Perceptual aspects of aniseikonia.

OPTOM 231 – Introductory Clinical Pharmacology

Pharcaokinetic and pharmacodynamic theory. Systemic medications used to manage most major diseases. Mechanism of action, contraindications and systemic and ocular adverse drug reactions.

OPTOM 243 – Neurophysiology of Vision

The neural processing of colour, brightness, movement and form by the retina, lateral geniculate, cortex, superior colliculus and other brain centres. Neural mechanisms underlying binocular depth perception, the accommodative response and eye movement.

OPTOM 245 – Diseases of the Eye 1

Anterior segment disease including etiology, pathogenesis, signs, symptoms, differential diagnosis and management of diseases of the ocular adnexa and anterior segment of the eye: the lids, orbit and adnexa, conjuntiva, comea, uvea, sciera, lens and cataract, the glaucomas and ocular emergencies.

OPTOM 245L – Diseases of the Eye 1 Laboratory

Selected clinical techniques for students taking OPTOM 245.

OPTOM 246 – Ophthalmic Optics 2

Multifocal spectacle lenses. Aberrations of thin lenses and spectacle lens design. Prescribing and fitting of spectacles. Environmental and occupational prescribing. Prescription analysis. Ophthalmic and visual standards. Computer vision syndrome. Ophthalmic laboratory procedures: measurement of complex spectacle lenses, and spectacle frame adjustment and repairs.

OPTOM 250 – Optometric Jurisprudence

Legal aspects of practising optometry in Canada. Fundamentals of Canadian law. Negligence. Informed consent. Legislation and regulations affecting optometric practice.

OPTOM 252 – Clinical Techniques 2

Basic and clinical ocular motility. Basic concepts of ocular motility are integrated with clinical methods. Assessment and diagnosis of strabismic and non-strabismic disorders.

OPTOM 252L – Clinical Techniques 2 Laboratory

Selected clinical techniques for students taking OPTOM 252.

OPTOM 255 – Diseases of the Eye 2

Etiology, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and epidemiology of diseases of the posterior segment of the eye; higher visual and oculomotor systems; multisystem diseases.

OPTOM 255L – Diseases of the Eye 2 Laboratory

Selected clinical techniques for students taking OPTOM 255.

OPTOM 261 – Clinical Ocular Pharmacology

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles of ophthalmic drug design and delivery. Selection and use of ophthalmic diagnostic pharmaceutical agents, palliative agents and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents. Mechanism of action, contraindications and adverse drug reactions. Recommended guidelines for use and follow-up procedures.

OPTOM 262 – Clinical Techniques 3

Differential diagnosis and problem specific testing using a systems examination approach. Minimum database expectations. Record keeping, case presentations, counselling, referrals and report writing. Preparation for entry into Optometry Clinic including policy review and standards of practice. Observation and preliminary testing in the Optometry Clinic.

OPTOM 270 – Public Health Optometry

Introduction to the foundation and basic sciences of public health with an emphasis on the epidemiology of vision problems.

OPTOM 272 – Strabismus and Aniseikonia

Detection and evaluation of sensory and motor characteristics of vision in aniseikonic, strabismic and nonstrabismic patients. Classifications, diagnoses, prognoses, and modes of therapy for aniseikonic, nonstrabismic, and strabismic patients.

OPTOM 339 – Visual Perception 3:Colour Vision

An introduction to colour perception, colorimetry and colour discrimination. Characteristics of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies, colour vision test design and patient management.

OPTOM 342A – Case Analysis and Optometric Therapies 1

The clinical application of the visual sciences. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnostic method of analyzing clinical data with consideration given to appropriate clinical techniques, effective record keeping, recommended optometric therapies and prognoses.

OPTOM 342B – Case Analysis and Optometric Therapies 2

A continuation of Optometry 342A. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnostic method of analyzing clinical data with special emphasis on refractive and binocular vision conditions.

OPTOM 346 – Ophthalmic Optics 3

Spectacle frame materials. Fitting and adjusting techniques. Selection of lens design. Lenses for high myopia. Dispensing of eye protectors. Optics of low vision aids. Patient counselling and management of dispensing problems. Laboratories provide experience in practical aspects of ophthalmic dispensing.

OPTOM 347 – Contact Lenses 1

Indications and contra-indications for contact lens wear. Lens selection and design. Fitting and evaluating rigid and hydrogel soft contact lenses. Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of contact lens materials. Optical and mathematical concepts. The ocular physiological response to contact lens wear. Care and maintenance of contact lenses.

OPTOM 347L – Contact Lenses 1 Laboratory

Selected clinical techniques for students taking OPTOM 347.

OPTOM 348A – Optometry Clinics

Students are assigned to various areas within the clinic where, under direct clinical faculty supervision, they participate in the provision of optometric services to clinic patients. In addition to primary care, they are exposed to the provision of contact lens, ocular health and optical services.

OPTOM 348B – Optometry Clinics

Students are assigned to various areas within the clinic where, under direct clinical faculty supervision, they participate in the provision of optometric services to clinic patients. In addition to primary care, they are exposed to the provision of contact lens, ocular health and optical services.

OPTOM 360 – Professional Ethics and Optometric Communication

A survey of alternative philosophical perspectives involved in resolution of sample ethical and moral issues confronting optometrists. Awareness of the explicit and implicit contents of written and vocal communications. An exploration of optometric communication issues related to letter and report writing, patient counselling, patient referral, fee presentation, and complaint management.

OPTOM 365 – Ophthalmic Lasers and Refractive Surgery

General principles, types and uses of lasers in eyecare. Biagnostic, thermal, ionizing, and excimer lasers. Refractive surgery. Safety and efficacy. Pre-operative and post-operative care.

OPTOM 367 – Contact Lenses 2

Detection and management of chronic and acute complications induced by contact lenses. Contact lens management options for special conditions such as dry eye, aphakia and keratoconus (and other corneal irregularities). Disposable lenses and replacement regimens. Extended wear options. Alternative management of refractive errors such as orthokeratology and refractive surgery. Contact lenses and presbyopia.

OPTOM 375 – Diseases of the Eye 3

Advanced considerations of the etiology, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and management of ocular disease. Emphasis will be placed on the clinical case management with therapeutic pharmaceutical agents.

OPTOM 375L – Diseases of the Eye 3 Laboratory

Selected clinical techniques for students taking OPTOM 375.

OPTOM 377 – Pediatric Optometry and Learning Disabilities

Optometric examination and management of infants, children and patients with learning disabilities or multiple-challenges. General child development and the development of the optical and sensory-motor functions of the visual system. Learning disabilities and related vision problems. The role of the optometrist in conjunction with parents, teachers and psychologists.

OPTOM 380 – Practice Management

Practice management issues relating to solo, associate-ships, contracts, the development and running of a clinical practice, opening a practice, staff training, dealing with complaints, data collection, practice promotion and marketing, advertising, financial and legal issues.

OPTOM 385 – Clinical Medicine for Optometric Practice

Overview of current medical diagnoses and management of systemic diseases with ocular involvement. History and physical examination (including neurological examination), clinical laboratory testing, and diagnostic imaging. Diseases of high prevalence including cardiovascular, cancer, endocrine, and neurological disorders.

OPTOM 387 – Gerontology and Low Vision

Aging and its effects on the visual system in both health and disease, care and management of the aging patient. Assessment and management of visual impairment and disability, including both optical and non-optical therapies. Epidemiology and psychology of vision impairment, and associated rehabilitative services.

OPTOM 412 – Case Analysis 3

Building on analytical principles developed in OPTOM 342, this course involves student, case-based presentations in a grand rounds format. Each student chooses one, different, interesting case from his/her previous clinical experience. The student presents the case and answers questions related to the case and the patient's condition(s). Faculty discussants will direct the students in assessing the basic and clinical science features of the cases. Patient cases may be chosen from any aspect of optometric practice.

OPTOM 441 – Optometry Research Proposal

An independent paper in the form of literature review on the student's area of interest, experimental design proposition, and preliminary data. Before registering in the course the student and the designated supervisor must submit to the coordinator a research proposal for the student's research area. The format of the paper is to be determined with the supervisor and may be in chapters, in journal style, or in an oral presentation, during the registered term, at seminar sessions (OPTOM 609/OPTOM 629).

OPTOM 451 – Optometry Research Project

An independent research project on an approved topic, supervised by a faculty member. This is the completion of the research proposal in OPTOM 441 and it is recommended that the format of the report, to be determined with the supervisor, follow the format selected for OPTOM 441.

OPTOM 458 – Clinical Clerkship 1

Supervised optometric patient care in one or more external clinical settings.This course is complementary to OPTOM 468 Clinical Clerkship 2 and includes optometric assessment, diagnosis and management of refractive errors, disorders and diseases of the eye and visual system, along with associated systemic conditions and practice management. [Offered: S, F, W]

OPTOM 460 – Advanced Study Topics

Intensive study of a speciality optometric topic. Course formats may involve lectures, clinical worships, literature reviews or research projects.

OPTOM 461S – Optometry Seminar

This is a seminar course

OPTOM 468 – Clinical Clerkship 2

Supervised optometric patient care in one, or more, external clinical settings. This course is complementary to OPTOM 458 Clinical Clerkship 1 and includes optometric assessment, diagnosis and management of refractive errors, disorders and diseases of the eye and visual system, along with associated systemic conditions and practice management. [Offered: S, F, W]

OPTOM 477 – Clinical Techniques 4

This course will provide an opportunity for optometry students to discuss and evaluate clinical techniques, instrumentation, and ideologies not covered in the current curriculum. Students will be encouraged to use their basic knowledge of the vision sciences to provide a perceptive critique of the clinical subjects addressed.

OPTOM 478 – Clinical Clerkship 3

Supervised optometric patient care in a variety of the University of Waterloo optometric clinical settings. Activities include assessment, diagnosis and management of disorders and diseases of the eye and visual system, along with associated systemic conditions, dispensing and fitting of optometric appliances and rehabilitative vision care. [Offered: S, F, W]

OPTOM 488 – Exit Exam Remediation

Remediation in areas failed during clinical exit examinations. On-site clinical rotations and self-study guided by the faculty.

OPTOM 600 – Physiology of the Eye

An advanced treatment of lacrimal apparatus, tears, cornea, the consequences of contact lens wear, aqueous production and drainage, intraocular pressure, the lens, accommodation, the vitreous, the blood supply to the eye, the retinal epithelium, extraocular muscles.

OPTOM 601 – Optical Characteristics of the Eye

The refractive state of the eye and its variables; transmittance, absorption, scattering by the ocular media; pupil size, aberrations, diffraction limitations, resolution, and contrast transfer functions.

OPTOM 602 – Ocular Motility

Kinematics of eye movements, specifications of the direction of regard, neurology of oculomotor functions, oculomotor systems and types of eye movements, disorders of oculomotor systems and their effects.

OPTOM 603 – Accommodation and Convergence

Mechanism of accommodation; stimulus to accommodation; time and amplitude characteristics of the response; synkinesis of accommodation and convergence; ACA ratio; the zone of clear single binocular vision.

OPTOM 604 – Visual Perception of Space

Oculocentric and egocentric directionalization; monocular clues for depth perception; distance and size relationships; real and apparent motion; the theoretical and nonius horoptomer and the apparent fronto-parallel plane; stereopsis; aniseikonia; Pulfrich effects; alley experiments and the geometry of visual space.

OPTOM 605 – Psychophysics of Colour Vision

Normal and defective spectral sensitivity, colour discrimination and colour matching functions. Colour perception in the peripheral retina and by small fields. Chromatic adaptation. Colour vision in animals. Theories of colour vision.

OPTOM 606 – Radiation and the Visual Stimulus

Measurement and specification of light; radiometric and photometric relationships; spectrophotometry and the C.I.E. colorimetric specification of visual stimuli; radiation limits of the visual system. Radiation hazards and safety criteria.

OPTOM 607 – Neurophysiology of Vision

An advanced course which examines photoreceptor function, the retina, the neural processing of form and colour by the geniculo-striate system, the neural control of eye movements and accommodation by midbrain and brainstem structures, the vestibular system as it relates to vision, eye-hand co-ordination, the neural processing involved in reading.

OPTOM 608 – Special Topics in Vision Science

Topics in the fields of specialization of the faculty may be studied by special arrangements with the faculty member, the student and his or her committee.

OPTOM 610 – The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Vertbrate Eye

An evaluation of evolutionary lines of development of visual structures and functions: the vascular system, accessory glands, light control mechanisms, the distribution of visual pigments, accommodation, binocular vision and neural coding.

OPTOM 611 – Epidemiology of Vision Anomalies

The distribution, determinants and frequency of vision problems. Estimates of risk. Risk factors and the development of vision problems.

OPTOM 613 – Visual Development

Consideration of the development of the optomical, and sensory motor functions of vision during the early years of life provides the basis upon which this course examines current methods and literature in basic and clinical vision sciences. Course structure will be organized to suit a student's background (optomometry, psychology, physics or biology) and their special interests.

OPTOM 614A – Clinical OptometryPart 1-MSc

Attendance within clinical areas agreed upon by the student, supervisor and Clinic Director and approved by the Clinic Director. The aim of the course is to broaden and develop advanced clinical skills and knowledge. Credit will be given for completion of each term of clinical activity (or its equivalent) and the presentation of one seminar (case report) a term. Credit towards a degree may only be earned once in the progression through the MSc degree.

OPTOM 614B – Clinical Optometry Part 2 - MSc

Attendance within clinical areas agreed upon by the student, supervisor and Clinic Director and approved by the Clinic Director. The aim of the course is to broaden and develop advanced clinical skills and knowledge. Credit will be given for completion of each term of clinical activity (or its equivalent) and the presentation of one seminar (case report) a term. Credit towards a degree may only be earned once in the progression through the MSc degree.

OPTOM 615 – Visual Psychophysics

The course will examine how various factors (luminance, contrast, psychophysical method and ocular disease) can influence the outcome of psychophysical tests that are used in both basic and clinical vision research. Consideration will be given to the utility of such tests by considering their reliability, discriminative power and validity.

OPTOM 616 – Research Methodology for Vision Science

The course will work through the process of the scientific method using a grant proposal to NSERC as a framework. The scientific method, research and experimental questions, experimental design, sampling, statistical theory & power, and data analysis will be covered. Ethical and budgetary issues will also be discussed.

OPTOM 620 – Data Analysis in Vision Science

Measurements, probability and power; Detecting difference between parametric/non-parametric variables; Analyzing repeated measures designs; Relationships between parametric/non-parametric variables; Between-eye comparison and correlation; Complex regression; Statistical re-sampling techniques; Analysis of clinical images; Accurancy and repeatability of novel clinical and experimental techniques; Introductory analysis of epidemiological and clinical trials data.

OPTOM 624A – Clinical Optometry Part 1 - PhD

Attendance within clincial areas agreed upon by the student, supervisor and Clinic Director and approved by the Clinic Director. The aim of the course is to broaden and develop advanced clinical skills and knowledge. Any two terms of clinical activity (or its equivalent) and the presentation of one seminar (case report) a term will fulfill this requirement. Recognition of participation in this course can only be given once in the progression through the PhD degree.

OPTOM 624B – Clinical Optometry Part 2-PhD

Attendance within clincial areas agreed upon by the student, supervisor and Clinic Director and approved by the Clinic Director. The aim of the course is to broaden and develop advanced clinical skills and knowledge. Any two terms of clinical activity (or its equivalent) and the presentation of one seminar (case report) a term will fulfill this requirement. Recognition of participation in this course can only be given once in the progression through the PhD degree.

OPTOM 628 – Special Topics in Vision Science

Topics in the fields of specialization of the faculty may be studied by special arrangement with the faculty member and the student's committee. The course is designed for PhD students only. The course cannot be similar in content to 608 taken at the Master's level.

OPTOM 630 – Principles of Clinical Instruction

Examination of three learning theories will provide the context for consideration of learning and motivation in the Optometry educational setting. Important components of clinical instruction such as breadth of professional knowledge, effectiveness of instructor-student and instructor-patient interactions, and feedback utilization will be discussed. Performance evaluation with the aim of improving practical and teaching skills will utilize, among other things, video taping.

OPTOM 631 – Graduate Clinic

Graduate clinic requires the attendance of a resident within the clinical areas agreed upon with his supervisor. This clinical course and associated research projects will provide the resident with materials designed to broaden clinical understanding. OPTOM 631 may be taken any number of times provided that the content of the program is specified in writing by the advisor and is sufficiently varied from a previous session of OPTOM 631 such that it constitutes a distinct advance in a resident's clinical knowledge.

OPTOM 650 – Research Methodology for Vision Science

The course will work through the process of the scientific method using a grant proposal to NSERC as a framework. The scientific method, research and experimental questions, experimental design, sampling, statistical theory & power, and data analysis will be covered. Ethical and budgetary issues will also be discussed.

OPTOM 651 – Data Analysis in Vision Science

Measurements, probability and power; Detecting difference between parametric/non-parametric variables; Analyzing repeated measures designs; Relationships between parametric/non-parametric variables; Between-eye comparison and correlation; Complex regression; Statistical re-sampling techniques; Analysis of clinical images; Accurancy and repeatability of novel clinical and experimental techniques; Introductory analysis of epidemiological and clinical trials data.

OPTOM 660 – Visual Psychophysics

The course will examine how various factors (luminance, contrast, psychophysical method and ocular disease) can influence the outcome of psychophysical tests that are used in both basic and clinical vision research. Consideration will be given to the utility of such tests by considering their reliability, discriminative power and validity.

OPTOM 661 – Practical Advancement Data Analysis

Bayesian statistics, questionnaire analysis, advanced linear and non-linear modeling.

OPTOM 670 – Vision Science Part 1

A concentrated review of topics relating to principles of and research in the vision sciences. The course is split into 2 segments (OPTOM 690A/690B) covering ocular anatomy and ultrastructure and ocular physiology. This course is recommended for all graduate students.

OPTOM 671 – Vision Science Part

A concentrated review of topics relating to principles of and research in the vision sciences. The course is split into 2 segments (OPTOM 690A/690B) covering optomics of the eye and binocular vision. This course is recommended for all graduate students.

OPTOM 672 – Comparative Anatomy & Physiology of the Vertebrate Eye

An evaluation of evolutionary lines of development of visual structures and functions: the vascular system, accessory glands, light control mechanisms, the distribution of visual pigments, accommodation, binocular vision and neural coding.

OPTOM 680 – Visual Development

Consideration of the development of the optomical, and sensory motor functions of vision during the early years of life provides the basis upon which this course examines current methods and literature in basic and clinical vision sciences. Course structure will be organized to suit a student's background (optometry, psychology, physics or biology) and their special interests.

OPTOM 681 – Ageing and Vision

Theories of ageing as they relate to vision. Ageing changes in structure and function of the eye and visual system. Impact of visual function on functional (everyday) vision. Interaction between vision and other ageing changes. Cortical plasticity and ageing.

OPTOM 682 – Visual Motor Neuroscience

This course will examine the behavior and neural substrates of eye movements, specifically covering fixation, saccades, vestibular ocular interactions, smooth pursuit and the near triad synkinesis (vergence, accommodation and pupil responses). Oculomotor behaviors for each system will be defined with respect to their specific stimuli, their dynamic and steady state responses. Adaptive process within and across systems will be examined. Control theory will be introduced as a means to model each system. The course will allow emphasis to be focused on oculomotor systems pertinent to the student's research.

OPTOM 683 – Visual Sensory Neuroscience

Visual sensory processing of light, form and space; Ocular somatosensory processing.

OPTOM 690A – Vision Science Part 1

A concentrated review of topics relating to principles of and research in the vision sciences. The course is split into 2 segments (OPTOM 690A/690B) covering ocular anatomy and ultrastructure and ocular physiology. This course is recommended for all graduate students.

OPTOM 690B – Vision Science Part II

A concentrated review of topics relating to principles of and research in the vision sciences. The course is split into 2 segments (OPTOM 690A/690B) covering optomics of the eye and binocular vision. This course is recommended for all graduate students.