# AMATH Courses

# AMATH 231 – Calculus 4

Vector integral calculus-line integrals, surface integrals and vector fields, Green's theorem, the Divergence theorem, and Stokes' theorem. Applications include conservation laws, fluid flow and electromagnetic fields. An introduction to Fourier analysis. Fourier series and the Fourier transform. Parseval's formula. Frequency analysis of signals. Discrete and continuous spectra. [Offered: F,W,S]

# AMATH 242 – Introduction to Computational Mathematics

A rigorous introduction to the field of computational mathematics. The focus is on the interplay between continuous models and their solution via discrete processes. Topics include: pitfalls in computation, solution of linear systems, interpolation, discrete Fourier transforms and numerical integration. Applications are used as motivation.

# AMATH 250 – Introduction to Differential Equations

Physical systems which lead to differential equations (examples include mechanical vibrations, population dynamics, and mixing processes). Dimensional analysis and dimensionless variables. Solving linear differential equations: first- and second-order scalar equations and first-order vector equations. Laplace transform methods of solving differential equations. [Offered: F,W,S]

# AMATH 251 – Introduction to Differential Equations (Advanced level)

AMATH 251 is an advanced-level version of AMATH 250. Compared to AMATH 250, AMATH 251 offers a more theoretical treatment of differential equations and solution methods. In addition, emphasis will be placed on computational analysis of differential equations and on applications in science and engineering.

# AMATH 261 – Classical Mechanics and Special Relativity

Newtonian dynamics of particles and systems of particles. Oscillations. Gravity and the central force problem. Lorentz transformations and relativistic dynamics. [Offered: W,S]

# AMATH 271 – Introduction to Theoretical Mechanics

Dimensional Analysis, Newtonian dynamics, gravity and the two-body problem, Introduction to Hamiltonian Mechanics, Non-conservative forces, Oscillations, Introduction to Special Relativity [Offered: F]

# AMATH 310 – Environmental Informatics

The objective of this class is to understand and use quantitative and analytical techniques founded in mathematics and the geosciences to describe, model and predict environmental phenomena on planet Earth. The course aims to teach the mathematical tools as well as the physics underlying such phenomena. An introduction to data analysis will also be provided. Topics include chaos theory, turbulence, ocean-atmosphere interactions (El Nino/Southern Oscillation), simple climate models, and atmosphere-land interactions. [Offered: F every other year]

# AMATH 331 – Applied Real Analysis

Topology of Euclidean spaces, continuity, norms, completeness. Contraction mapping principle. Fourier series. Various applications, for example, to ordinary differential equations, optimization and numerical approximation.

# AMATH 332 – Applied Complex Analysis

Complex numbers, Cauchy-Riemann equations, analytic functions, conformal maps and applications to the solution of Laplace's equation, contour integrals, Cauchy integral formula, Taylor and Laurent expansions, residue calculus and applications.

# AMATH 333 – Elementary Differential Geometry

An introduction to local differential geometry, laying the groundwork for both global differential geometry and general relativity. Submanifolds of n-dimensional Euclidean space. Embedded curves and the intrinsic geometry of surfaces in Euclidean 3-space. Metrics, geodesics, and curvature. Gaussian curvature and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem.

# AMATH 342 – Computational Methods for Differential Equations

An introduction to numerical methods for ordinary and partial differential equations. Ordinary differential equations: multistep and Runge-Kutta methods; stability and convergence; systems and stiffness; boundary value problems. Partial differential equations: finite difference methods for elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic equations; stability and convergence. The course focuses on introducing widely used methods and highlights applications in the natural sciences, the health sciences, engineering and finance. [Offered: F,W]

# AMATH 343 – Discrete Models in Applied Mathematics

Difference equations, Laplace and z transforms applied to discrete (and continuous) mathematical models taken from ecology, biology, economics and other fields. [Offered: W]

# AMATH 350 – Differential Equations for Business and Economics

First order ordinary differential equations. Applications to continuous compounding and the dynamics of supply and demand. Higher order linear ordinary differential equations. Systems of linear ordinary differential equations. Introduction to linear partial differential equations. The Fourier Transform and the diffusion equation. Discussion of the Black-Scholes partial differential equations, and solutions thereof. [Offered: F,W]

# AMATH 351 – Ordinary Differential Equations 2

Second order linear differential equations with non-constant coefficients, Sturm comparison, oscillation and separation theorems, series solutions and special functions. Linear vector differential equations in Rn, an introduction to dynamical systems. Laplace transforms applied to linear vector differential equations, transfer functions, the convolution theorem. Perturbation methods for differential equations. Numerical methods for differential equations. Applications are discussed throughout. [Offered: F,S]

# AMATH 353 – Partial Differential Equations 1

Second order linear partial differential equations - the diffusion equation, wave equation, and Laplace's equation. Methods of solution - separation of variables and eigenfunction expansions, the Fourier transform. Physical interpretation of solutions in terms of diffusion, waves and steady states. First order non-linear partial differential equations and the method of characteristics. Applications are emphasized throughout. [Offered: W,S]

# AMATH 361 – Continuum Mechanics

Stress and strain tensors; analysis of stress and strain. Lagrangian and Eulerian methods for describing flow. Equations of continuity, motion and energy, constitutive equations. Navier-Stokes equation. Basic equations of elasticity. Various applications. [Offered: W]

# AMATH 373 – Quantum Theory 1

Critical experiments and old quantum theory. Basic concepts of quantum mechanics: observables, wavefunctions, Hamiltonians and the Schroedinger equation. Uncertainty, correspondence and superposition principles. Simple applications to finite and extended one-dimensional systems, harmonic oscillator, rigid rotor and hydrogen atom. [Offered: W]

# AMATH 382 – Computational Modelling of Cellular Systems

An introduction to dynamic mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The emphasis is on using computational tools to investigate differential equation-based models. A variety of cellular phenomena are discussed, including ion pumps, membrane potentials, intercellular communication, genetic networks, regulation of metabolic pathways, and signal transduction.

# AMATH 383 – Introduction to Mathematical Biology

An introduction to the mathematical modelling of biological processes, with emphasis on population biology. Topics include ecology, epidemiology, microbiology, and physiology. Techniques include difference equations, ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, stability analysis, phase plane analysis, travelling wave solutions, mathematical software. Includes collaborative projects and computer labs.

# AMATH 390 – Mathematics and Music

An introduction to some of the deep connections between mathematics and music. Topics covered include: acoustics, including pitch and harmonics, basic Fourier analysis, the mathematics behind the differing pitch and timbre of string, wind and percussion instruments, scales and temperaments, digital music, musical synthesis.

# AMATH 391 – From Fourier to Wavelets

An introduction to contemporary mathematical concepts in signal analysis. Fourier series and Fourier transforms (FFT), the classical sampling theorem and the time-frequency uncertainty principle. Wavelets and multiresolution analysis. Applications include oversampling, denoising of audio, data compression and singularity detection.

# AMATH 431 – Measure and Integration

General measures, measurability, Caratheodory Extension theorem and construction of measures, integration theory, convergence theorems, Lp-spaces, absolute continuity, differentiation of monotone functions, Radon-Nikodym theorem, product measures, Fubini's theorem, signed measures, Urysohn's lemma, Riesz Representation theorems for classical Banach spaces.

# AMATH 432 – Functional Analysis

Banach and Hilbert spaces, bounded linear maps, Hahn-Banach theorem, open mapping theorem, closed graph theorem, topologies, nets, Hausdorff spaces, Tietze extension theorem, dual spaces, weak topologies, Tychonoff's theorem, Banach-Alaoglu theorem, reflexive spaces.

# AMATH 433 – Differential Geometry

An introduction to differentiable manifolds. The tangent and cotangent bundles. Vector fields and differential forms. The Lie bracket and Lie derivative of vector fields. Exterior differentiation, integration of differential forms, and Stokes's Theorem. Riemannian manifolds, affine connections, and the Riemann curvature tensor.

# AMATH 442 – Computational Methods for Partial Differential Equations

This course studies several classes of methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations in multiple dimensions on structured and unstructured grids. Finite volume methods for hyperbolic conservation laws: linear and nonlinear hyperbolic systems; stability; numerical conservation. Finite element methods for elliptic and parabolic equations: weak forms; existence of solutions; optimal convergence; higher-order methods. Examples from fluid and solid mechanics. Additional topics as time permits. [Offered: F]

# AMATH 444 – Applications of Computational Differential Equations

This course will present two major applications of differential equations based modeling, and focus on the specific problems encountered in each application area. The areas may vary from year to year. Students will gain some understanding of the steps involved in carrying out a realistic numerical modelling exercise. Possible areas include: Fluid Dynamics, Finance, Control, Acoustics, Fate and Transport of Environmental Contaminants.

# AMATH 447 – Introduction to Symbolic Computation

An introduction to the use of computers for symbolic mathematical computation, involving traditional mathematical computations such as solving linear equations (exactly), analytic differentiation and integration of functions, and analytic solution of differential equations.

# AMATH 451 – Introduction to Dynamical Systems

A unified view of linear and nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations in Rn. Flow operators and their classification: contractions, expansions, hyperbolic flows. Stable and unstable manifolds. Phase-space analysis. Nonlinear systems, stability of equilibria and Lyapunov functions. The special case of flows in the plane, Poincare-Bendixson theorem and limit cycles. Applications to physical problems will be a motivating influence. [Offered: W]

# AMATH 453 – Partial Differential Equations 2

A thorough discussion of the class of second-order linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients, in two independent variables. Laplace's equation, the wave equation and the heat equation in higher dimensions. Theoretical/qualitative aspects: well-posed problems, maximum principles for elliptic and parabolic equations, continuous dependence results, uniqueness results (including consideration of unbounded domains), domain of dependence for hyperbolic equations. Solution procedures: elliptic equations -- Green functions, conformal mapping; hyperbolic equations -- generalized d'Alembert solution, spherical means, method of descent; transform methods -- Fourier, multiple Fourier, Laplace, Hankel (for all three types of partial differential equations); Duhamel's method for inhomogeneous hyperbolic and parabolic equations.

# AMATH 455 – Control Theory

Feedback control with applications. System theory in both time and frequency domain, state-space computations, stability, system uncertainty, loopshaping, linear quadratic regulators and estimation. [Offered: W]

# AMATH 456 – Calculus of Variations

Concept of functional and its variations. The solution of problems using variational methods - the Euler-Lagrange equations. Applications include an introduction to Hamilton's Principle and optimal control. [Offered: F]

# AMATH 463 – Fluid Mechanics

Incompressible, irrotational flow. Incompressible viscous flow. Introduction to wave motion and geophysical fluid mechanics. Elements of compressible flow. [Offered: F]

# AMATH 473 – Quantum Theory 2

The Hilbert space of states, observables and time evolution. Feynman path integral and Greens functions. Approximation methods. Coordinate transformations, angular momentum and spin. The relation between symmetries and conservation laws. Density matrix, Ehrenfest theorem and decoherence. Multiparticle quantum mechanics. Bell inequality and basics of quantum computing. [Offered: F]

# AMATH 475 – Introduction to General Relativity

Tensor analysis. Curved space-time and the Einstein field equations. The Schwarzschild solution and applications. The Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models. [Offered: W]

# AMATH 477 – Statistical Mechanics

Equilibrium statistical mechanics is developed from first principles, based on elementary probability theory and quantum theory (classical statistical mechanics is developed later as an appropriate limiting case). Emphasis is placed on the intimate connections between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Although it would be useful, prior knowledge of quantum theory is not necessary.

# AMATH 495 – Reading Course

Reading course as announced by the department.

# AMATH 655 – Control Theory

Feedback control with applications. System theory in both time and frequency domain, state-space computations, stability, system uncertainty, loopshaping, linear quadratic regulators and estimation. (Heldwith AMATH 455)

# AMATH 663 – Fluid Mechanics

Incompressible, irrotational flow. Incompressible viscous flow. Introduction to wave motion and geophysical fluid mechanics. Elements of compressible flow. (Heldwith AMATH 463)

# AMATH 673 – Quantum Mechanics

Vector space formalism, Schrodinger and Heisenberg pictures, elements of second quantization. Angular momentum, selection rules, symmetry and conservation laws. Approximation methods: variation principle, perturbation theory and WKB approximation. Identical particles, Pauli principle and simple applications to atomic, molecular, solid state, scattering and nuclear problems. (Heldwith AMATH 473) [Offered: F]

# AMATH 675 – General Relativity

Flat space-time and Lorentz transformations. Relativistic mechanics. Maxwell's equations. Curved space-time and the Einstein field equations. The Schwarzschild solution and some experimental tests of general relativity. The weak-field limit. Introduction to black holes and cosmology. (Heldwith AMATH 675)

# AMATH 690 – Literature & Research Studies

# AMATH 731 – Applied Functional Analysis

Basic concepts of functional analysis. Topics include: theory of linear operators, nonlinear operators and the Frechet derivative, fixed point theorems, approximate solution of operator equations, Hilbert space, spectral theory. Applications from various areas will be used to motivate and illustrate the theory. A previous undergraduate course in real analysis is strongly recommended.

# AMATH 732 – Asymptotic Analysis and Perturbation Theory

Elements of asymptotic analysis. Techniques of perturbation theory such as Poincare-Lindstedt, matched asymptotic expansions and multiple scales. Applications to various areas form an essential aspect of the course. Previous courses in real analysis and differential equations at the undergraduate level are strongly recommended.

# AMATH 740 – Numerical Analysis

Introduction to basic algorithms and techniques for numerical computing. Error analysis, interpolation (including splines), numerical differentiation and integration, numerical linear algebra (including methods for linear systems, eigenvalue problems, and the singular value decomposition), root finding for nonlinear equations and systems, numerical ordinary differential equations, and approximation methods (including least squares, orthogonal polynomials, and Fourier transforms).

# AMATH 741 – Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations

Discretization methods for partial differential equations, including finite difference, finite volume and finite element methods. Application to elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic equations. Convergence and stability issues, properties of discrete equations, and treatment of non-linearities. Stiffness matrix assembly and use of sparse matric software. Students should have completed a course in numerical computation at the undergraduate level.

# AMATH 751 – Advanced Ordinary Differential Equations

Qualitative theory of systems of ODEs. Topics include: existence/uniqueness of solutions, comparison principle, iterative techniques, stability and boundedness, Lyapunov method, periodic solutions, Floquet theory and Poincare maps, hyperbolicity, stable, unstable and center manifolds, structural stability and bifurcation. Applications from various areas will be used to motivate and illustrate the theory. A previous course in ordinary differential equations at the undergraduate level is strongly recommended.

# AMATH 753 – Advanced Partial Differential Equations

The main themes are well-posedness of problems, Hilbert space methods, variational principles and integral equation methods. Topics include: first-order nonlinear partial differential equations, quasilinear hyperbolic systems, potential theory, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, semi-groups, and power series solutions. Applications from various areas will be used to motivate and illustrate the theory. A previous course in partial differential equations at the undergraduate level is strongly recommended.

# AMATH 777 – Stochastic Processes in the Physical Sciences

Basic concepts and classification of stochastic processes. Stochastic differentiation and integration, Markov processes, Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, Fokker-Planck equation, Master equations: mesoscopic vs. macroscopic description. Spectral representation of stationary processes. Correlation function theory. A previous course in probability theory at the undergraduate level is strongly recommended.

# AMATH 851 – Stability Theory and Applications

Concepts of stability and boundedness, basic stability criteria, comparison methods, large scale systems, method of decomposition and aggregation, method of several Lyapunov functions, method of vector Lyapunov functions, method of higher derivatives. Stability problems in ecology, mechanics, neural networks and control systems. Students should have completed AM751 or equivalent.

# AMATH 855 – Advanced Systems Analysis and Control

The main theme is the extension of control theory beyond systems modelled by linear ordinary differential equations. Topics include: advanced systems theory, control of nonlinear systems, control of partial differential equations and delay equations. Students should have completed an introductory undergraduate course in control theory.

# AMATH 863 – Hydrodynamic Stability and Turbulence

Mathematical methods, stability of parellel flows for unstratified and stratified fluids, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, centrifugal instability, barotropic and baroclinic instabilities, the effects of viscosity and the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, transition to turbulence, averaged equations, closure problem, homogeneous isotropic turbulence, turbulent boundary layers, effects of stratification. Students should have completed an introductory undergraduate course in fluid mechanics.

# AMATH 867 – Dispersive and Nonlinear Waves

Dispersive waves, propagation of dispersive waves in an inhomogeneous medium (WKB theory). Nonlinear resonant interactions. Solitons: completely integrable nonlinear wave equations (e.g., the KdV equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equations) and the inverse Scattering Transform. Applications to water waves and nonlinear optics. Introducation to weakly nonlocal solitary waves and beyond-all-orders asymptotics. Completion of an upper year course in partial differential equations is strongly recommended.

# AMATH 871 – Quantum Information Processing

Review of basics of quantum information and computational complexity; Simple quantum algorithms; Quantum Fourier transform and Shor factoring algorithm: Amplitude amplification, Grover search algorithm and its optimality; Completely positive trace-preserving maps and Kraus representation; Non-locality and communication complexity; Physical realizations of quantum computation: requirements and examples; Quantum error-correction, including CSS codes, and elements of fault-tolerant computation; Quantum cryptography; Security proofs of quantum key distribution protocols; Quantum proof systems. Familiarity with theoretical computer science or quantum mechanics will also be an asset, though most students will not be familiar with both.

# AMATH 872 – Introduction to Quantum Field Theory for Cosmology

Introduction to scalar field theory and its canonical quantization in flat and curved spacetimes. The flat space effects of Casimir and Unruh. Quantum fluctuations of scalar fields and of the metric on curved space-times and application to inflationary cosmology. Hawking radiation.

# AMATH 873 – Introduction to Quantum Field Theory

Review of relativistic quantum mechanics and classical field theory. Quantization of free quantum fields (the particle interpretation of field quanta). Canonical quantization of interacting fields (Feynman rules). Application of the formalism of interactin quantum fields to lowest-order quantum electrodynamic processes. Radiative corrections and renormalization.

# AMATH 874 – Advanced techniques in General Relativity and Applications to Black Holes

Review of elementary general relativity. Timelike and null geodesic congruences. Hypersurfaces and junction conditions. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of general relativity. Mass and angular momentum of a gravitating body. The laws of black-hole mechanics.

# AMATH 875 – Introduction to General Relativity with Applications to Cosmology

Introduction to the differential geometry of Lorentzian manifolds. The priniciples of general relativity. Causal structure and cosmological singularities. Cosmological space-times with Killing vector fields. Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies, scalar, vector and tensor perburbations in the linear and nonlinear regimes. De Sitter space-times and inflationary models.

# AMATH 876 – Open Quantum Systems

Review of the axioms of quantum theory and derivation of generalized axioms by considering states, transformations, and measurements in an extended Hilbert space. Master equations and the Markov approximation. Standard models of system-environment interactions and the phenomenology of decoherence. Introduction to quantum control with applications in NMR, quantum optics, and quantum computing.

# AMATH 877 – Foundations of Quantum Theory

Review mathematical formulation of operational quantum theory; theory of measurements and decoherence; quantum-classical contrast; review of historical perspectives on interpretation, including EPR paradox; Bell's theorem, non-locality and contextuality; PBR theorem; selected topics including overviews of current interpretations of quantum mechanics and critical experiments in quantum foundations.

# AMATH 881 – Introduction to Mathematical Oncology

Biological and clinical aspects of cancer. Overview of recent mathematical models developed to examine different stages of cancer growth and therapeutic strategies, including ordinary and partial differential equation models, discrete models and models based on continuum mechanics. Various analytical and numerical methods will be used in the analysis of these models.

# AMATH 882 – Mathematical Cell Biology

Dynamic mathematical modelling of biological process at the cellular level. Intracellular networks: metabolism, signal transduction, and genetic regulatory networks. Neural networks: from biophysical modelling of single neurons to the analysis of network behaviour. Modelling will be carried out primarily through ordinary differential equations; analysis will involve application of dynamical systems tools and simulations. Other relevant modelling frameworks (PDEs, delay equations, stochastic methods) will be touched on as time allows.